JED - December 2016 - 62

That said, I suspect the basic architecture will have similar building blocks to
current systems. The key differences will
be more complex feature measurements,
a tighter coupling between the electronic surveillance and electronic attack
control, and multiple scales or layers of
emitter processing. The ability to retain
what the system learns and reuse that
information in later missions will be another key difference." Ultimately, cognitive EW will need to be considered at the
system architecture level.

OPERATIONAL IMPACT

The Journal of Electronic Defense | December 2016

62

Of course, the true value and operational impact of cognitive EW will be
seen in the battlespace.
Szumowski says, that while cognitive EW technology is certainly required
to keep EW systems current with threat
systems, he feels the benefits will go well
beyond that aspect. "It can improve the
situational awareness or overall humanmachine interface for an EWO through
the autonomous decision-making the
system enables," he explains. In terms of
measures of effectiveness, it can reduce
the number of manned platforms required, increase the effective operating
range of each individual platform and
ease the burden on spectrum planning.
"A potential longer-term benefit for
EW is a decrease in the timelines for
programming EW systems and the associated testing and re-validation required before a new capability can be
deployed to the warfighter," says Harris'
Nigara. As these adaptive EW systems
get fielded and their capabilities are
fully explored in operation and become
a trusted technology by the EW community, adaptive EW has the potential
to fundamentally alter how EW is conducted from development, to logistics,
to operational employment.
Kilfoyle says, "Just as commanders
have spoken of owning the air and the
importance of that to winning the war,
cognitive EW systems along with effective spectrum management and robust
networks will enable us to own the
spectrum. While it's primarily directed
at preserving our spectrum supremacy, I
can foresee new operational advantages
arising from the coupling of cognitive
EW with collaborative, networked EW.

The intelligent sharing across the battlefield of 'learned' awareness and EW
effects will have a profound effect on
our doctrine."

COGNITIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC
BATTLE MANAGEMENT
Cognitive technology right now is
focused mainly on EW applications and
mostly at the system level. But in the
long-term EW systems are just an entry
point for cognitive technologies to enter the battle network. In the future,
says Jesse "Judge" Bourque, Director,
EMS-Cyber-Influence Operations Policy
and Strategy, Expression Networks LLC,
other EMS dependent systems, such as
radars, datalinks and GPS receivers, will
incorporate cognitive technologies because they offers a better way for these
systems to handle the growing congestion of the EMS, as well as offering better electronic protect (EP) performance
against adversary EW and SIGINT systems. In Bourque's view, "adaptive systems offer 'structured accommodation'
to active electromagnetic operating
environments while cognitive systems
capable of adjustments analogous to
heuristic learning offer 'unstructured
accommodation,' or the ability to negotiate true abstractions effectively
at operationally relevant speeds." Cognitive performance can be realized
at many levels, he says, including the
component/system level, the platform
level, the inter-platform level and at
the collaboration level, in which dozens
or even hundreds of Blue Force cognitive (and traditional) radars, radios, EW
systems, etc., will collaborate in an unstructured way.
It is at this collaborative level in
which cognitive performance gets really
interesting, says Bourque, and there
are many questions yet to be answered.
What happens in the electromagnetic
operating environment when we have a
large number of cognitive radars, communications systems, PNT systems, EW
systems, etc., behaving in a non-linear
way (i.e., without strict rule sets) within the battlespace? How do cognitive
systems behave together? Even more
perplexing, how do we perform electromagnetic battle management (EMBM) in
an EM operating environment populated

by a diverse mix of cognitive systems,
behaving in an unstructured way, and
traditional systems behaving in a very
structured way? This coming reality
means new types of EMS command and
control concepts and technologies will
be needed in order to "optimize at the
speed of exchange," says Bourque. "Can
we lay a cognitive command and control
(C2) rule set on top of EMBM?," he asks.
"How do we achieve machine learning at
the network level?"
Instead of the DOD's current "systemof-systems" approach, do we instead
need to think in terms of a "cognitive
system of heterogeneously-accommodating (i.e., cognitive, adaptive, and
static) systems" in which there is centralized control and decentralized execution? Bourque says that this actually
aligns very well with the US military's
emphasis on enabling mission commanders to make decisions, which tends
to distribute decision making in order
to "enhance aggregate engagement tempo and therefore distribute risk." One
thing is certain, says Bourque: The DOD
must evolve from its current, very structured model of EMBM, which relies on
static spectrum management and Joint
Restricted Frequency Lists (JRFLs) to
an unstructured EMBM concept that is
much more dynamic and accommodating. Cognitive technologies could enable
that transition.

TRUST
While cognitive EW shows a lot of
promise, it is also important to recognize that it is still a very young set of
technologies. Acknowledging this fact,
Lockheed Martin's Rosenwinkel, said "I
think one major challenge is the user
community's trust [in] the algorithms.
For some of these new machine learning
approaches, it can be very, very difficult
to determine what the algorithm learned
and to figure out what it is making a decision or taking an action. The DOD isn't
going to accept a magic black box that
you can't prove will work and you can't
explain how it works. [DARPA's] Explainable AI program is getting at this, but
it's a very hard problem." Gaining the operators' trust is essential. Cognitive EW
is at the beginning of that process, but it
is off to a very promising start. a



JED - December 2016

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - December 2016

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
Washington Report
World Report
Interview: Col Jeffrey N. Aldridge, USAF
Interview: US Rep. Joe Pitts
The Future of Airborne Electronic Attack
Regaining the Advantage – Cognitive Electronic Warfare
Technology Survey: Flightline and Portable EW Simulators
AOC EW Singapore Preview
New Products
Report from the 2016 EW GCC Conference
Crows in the Community
The Heat is On
EW 101
Report from the 2016 AOC CEMA Conference
2016 AOC Award Winners
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - December 2016 - cover1
JED - December 2016 - cover2
JED - December 2016 - 3
JED - December 2016 - 4
JED - December 2016 - 5
JED - December 2016 - The View From Here
JED - December 2016 - 7
JED - December 2016 - Conferences Calendar
JED - December 2016 - 9
JED - December 2016 - Courses Calendar
JED - December 2016 - 11
JED - December 2016 - From the President
JED - December 2016 - 13
JED - December 2016 - 14
JED - December 2016 - The Monitor
JED - December 2016 - insert1
JED - December 2016 - insert2
JED - December 2016 - 16
JED - December 2016 - 17
JED - December 2016 - 18
JED - December 2016 - 19
JED - December 2016 - 20
JED - December 2016 - 21
JED - December 2016 - 22
JED - December 2016 - 23
JED - December 2016 - 24
JED - December 2016 - 25
JED - December 2016 - Washington Report
JED - December 2016 - 27
JED - December 2016 - World Report
JED - December 2016 - 29
JED - December 2016 - Interview: Col Jeffrey N. Aldridge, USAF
JED - December 2016 - 31
JED - December 2016 - 32
JED - December 2016 - 33
JED - December 2016 - Interview: US Rep. Joe Pitts
JED - December 2016 - 35
JED - December 2016 - 36
JED - December 2016 - 37
JED - December 2016 - The Future of Airborne Electronic Attack
JED - December 2016 - 39
JED - December 2016 - 40
JED - December 2016 - 41
JED - December 2016 - 42
JED - December 2016 - 43
JED - December 2016 - 44
JED - December 2016 - 45
JED - December 2016 - 46
JED - December 2016 - 47
JED - December 2016 - 48
JED - December 2016 - 49
JED - December 2016 - 50
JED - December 2016 - 51
JED - December 2016 - 52
JED - December 2016 - 53
JED - December 2016 - 54
JED - December 2016 - 55
JED - December 2016 - Regaining the Advantage – Cognitive Electronic Warfare
JED - December 2016 - 57
JED - December 2016 - 58
JED - December 2016 - 59
JED - December 2016 - 60
JED - December 2016 - 61
JED - December 2016 - 62
JED - December 2016 - Technology Survey: Flightline and Portable EW Simulators
JED - December 2016 - 64
JED - December 2016 - 65
JED - December 2016 - 66
JED - December 2016 - 67
JED - December 2016 - 68
JED - December 2016 - 69
JED - December 2016 - 70
JED - December 2016 - AOC EW Singapore Preview
JED - December 2016 - 72
JED - December 2016 - 73
JED - December 2016 - New Products
JED - December 2016 - 75
JED - December 2016 - Report from the 2016 EW GCC Conference
JED - December 2016 - 77
JED - December 2016 - Crows in the Community
JED - December 2016 - 79
JED - December 2016 - The Heat is On
JED - December 2016 - 81
JED - December 2016 - 82
JED - December 2016 - 83
JED - December 2016 - 84
JED - December 2016 - 85
JED - December 2016 - EW 101
JED - December 2016 - 87
JED - December 2016 - 88
JED - December 2016 - 89
JED - December 2016 - Report from the 2016 AOC CEMA Conference
JED - December 2016 - 91
JED - December 2016 - 92
JED - December 2016 - 2016 AOC Award Winners
JED - December 2016 - 94
JED - December 2016 - 95
JED - December 2016 - 96
JED - December 2016 - 97
JED - December 2016 - 98
JED - December 2016 - 99
JED - December 2016 - AOC News
JED - December 2016 - 101
JED - December 2016 - 102
JED - December 2016 - 103
JED - December 2016 - 104
JED - December 2016 - Index of Advertisers
JED - December 2016 - JED Quick Look
JED - December 2016 - cover3
JED - December 2016 - cover4
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