JED - December 2017 - 29

Common Radar
Characteristics
* FM Bi-Phase/
Poly-Phase

* Frequency Agility

* Interpulse and
Intrapulse

* Beam and Power
Agility

* Pulse-up

* Ultra Wideband

* Very Short Pulses

Adding to this complexity, is the fact
that the emitter population is much less
well defined, due to international radar
technology proliferation, as well as older legacy systems being upgraded by the
insertion of solid-state transmitters and
more advanced digital signal processors.

THE PLATFORM
Platform Considerations
For a UAV prosecuting collection
against an IAD network within the
A2AD scenario, platform selection is
one of the leading imperatives and ultimately becomes the primary operational
constraint. There exist many types of
UAV platforms, and the platform selection represents a trade-off for the user,
since ultimately the platform limits the
ELINT payload's size, weight and power
(SWAP), which in turn constrain the EW
system and SIGINT system capability. In
addition to these constraints, the user
often wants to employ the UAV for different missions, which drives requirements for operational flexibility.
For many users, mission flexibility is
the key. Whether equipped with a range
of payloads or a fixed mission-specific
payload, each UAV type offers varying
pros and cons, including operational endurance, operating altitude, platform size
and SWAP. Here, the user is faced with a
number of competing trade-offs, some of
which can be resolved by developing a
carefully thought through CONOPS.
Platform Types and Selection
A number of organizations have attempted to clarify the characteristics
between UAV types by establishing cat-

The Journal of Electronic Defense | December 2017

* Pulse Compression

egories. These are essen12
11
tially broken down by key
10
performance characteris9
tics relating to operational
Altitude (ft)
50k
8
altitude, endurance, range
30k
Nominal
7
A2AD
20k
and all-up weight capacLethality
6
Limit
10k
ity. In general terms, we
5
5000
can consider the choices
4
2000
3
for UAV types for ELINT
1000
2
falling into Mini, Tactical,
1
Medium Altitude Long En0
durance (MALE) and High
10
100
Range nm
Altitude Long Endurance
(HALE).
Fig. 1: Height vs. range. vs. lethality.
In selecting the UAV
radio horizon for the ELINT system. This
platform for ELINT, the stand-in and
need clearly drives the selection towards
stand-off scenarios will demand UAVs
a MALE or HALE type platform selection.
with different endurance and EW capabilities, which in turn reflect back on
the ability of the platform to lift the
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
payload for the desired mission endurAt this point, it is worth providing
ance. More importantly, the need to
some words on radar cross section (RCS).
consider other factors comes into play.
By the nature of their size and someThese factors are influenced by the
times by design, UAV platforms offer an
definition of the mission scenarios and
improved RCS, which is of great advanthe threat. Specifically, if the UAV is intage for the ELINT mission, especially if
tended to fly outside of the lethal enveit is intended to fly a stand-in mission.
lope of the IAD network within the A2AD
However, many UAVs today, especially
bubble, the aircraft must still fly at suffiMALE and HALE types, have such a lift
cient altitude that it's ELINT system can
capability that users often decided to
intercept emitters deep inside the A2AD
add a number of other sensors, such as
bubble (again, while flying outside of the
synthetic aperture radars (SARs), eleclethality zone). A second factor in the setro-optic and infrared (EO/IR) sensors,
lection of the UAV relates to the payload
and even jammers, in support of multiand in particular the size of the antenna
purpose capability. These items will inarray to be used for the ELINT system and
evitably add to the RCS of the platform
for that matter the COMINT system in a
and make survival in the stand-in misSIGINT designated platform.
sion much less certain.
For high direction-finding (DF) accuAnother factor in the mission selecracy, sensitivity, rapid response, as well
tion and nature of the ELINT platform is
as maximum flexibility, the dominant
the fact that as the UAV on an ELINT colconsideration must be the ability of the
lection mission penetrates further into
UAV to support long DF baselines and
the A2AD bubble, it starts to lose the ecolarge aperture antennas. Beyond these
nomic competition against the threat. At
factors, we also have to consider the nathe edge of the bubble, the cost of a kill
ture and the dissemination process of
for the threat system typically is high.
the ELINT data. These considerations will
The further the UAV flies into the bubble,
bring demands regarding onboard prohowever, the more it encounters shortercessing in support of data compression
range SAM systems where the cost of a
and demands on the data link between
round is less, the threats are more nuthe UAV and the ground control station.
merous and the likelihood increases of
If the goal is to fly strategic ELINT
being engaged by a salvo.
against threats inside of the A2AD bubble,
In addition, the UAV's data link bethen from Figure 1 we can see that the
comes an important element of the misUAV must support an operational ceiling
sion system that is highly influenced
above 30kft to ensure operation outside
by the CONOPS and mission scenario.
the A2AD lethality zone and a reasonable
For example, a strategic collection misLook Down Angle (degrees)

improved, and this now makes any radar a potentially lethal emitter. Combined with this situation is the trend
toward low-probability of intercept
(LPI) radars in the IAD networks. Characteristics which were once the exception are now common place, including:

29



JED - December 2017

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - December 2017

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
Washington Report
World Report
An Approach to UAV-Based ELINT
Combined EW and Cyber Event Illuminates Important Issues and Disconnects
Technology Survey: RF Tuners and Tuner Modules for SIGINT Applications
AOC EW Singapore 2018 Preview
Report from the 2017 AOC CEMA Conference
New Products
Recounting the History of the EW Working Group
EW 101
AOC 2017 Annual Award Winners
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - December 2017 - intro
JED - December 2017 - cover1
JED - December 2017 - cover2
JED - December 2017 - 3
JED - December 2017 - 4
JED - December 2017 - 5
JED - December 2017 - The View From Here
JED - December 2017 - 7
JED - December 2017 - Conferences Calendar
JED - December 2017 - 9
JED - December 2017 - Courses Calendar
JED - December 2017 - 11
JED - December 2017 - From the President
JED - December 2017 - 13
JED - December 2017 - 14
JED - December 2017 - insert1
JED - December 2017 - insert2
JED - December 2017 - The Monitor
JED - December 2017 - 16
JED - December 2017 - 17
JED - December 2017 - 18
JED - December 2017 - 19
JED - December 2017 - 20
JED - December 2017 - 21
JED - December 2017 - 22
JED - December 2017 - 23
JED - December 2017 - Washington Report
JED - December 2017 - 25
JED - December 2017 - World Report
JED - December 2017 - 27
JED - December 2017 - An Approach to UAV-Based ELINT
JED - December 2017 - 29
JED - December 2017 - 30
JED - December 2017 - 31
JED - December 2017 - 32
JED - December 2017 - 33
JED - December 2017 - 34
JED - December 2017 - 35
JED - December 2017 - 36
JED - December 2017 - 37
JED - December 2017 - 38
JED - December 2017 - 39
JED - December 2017 - 40
JED - December 2017 - Combined EW and Cyber Event Illuminates Important Issues and Disconnects
JED - December 2017 - 42
JED - December 2017 - 43
JED - December 2017 - 44
JED - December 2017 - 45
JED - December 2017 - 46
JED - December 2017 - 47
JED - December 2017 - 48
JED - December 2017 - Technology Survey: RF Tuners and Tuner Modules for SIGINT Applications
JED - December 2017 - insert3
JED - December 2017 - insert4
JED - December 2017 - 50
JED - December 2017 - 51
JED - December 2017 - 52
JED - December 2017 - 53
JED - December 2017 - 54
JED - December 2017 - 55
JED - December 2017 - 56
JED - December 2017 - 57
JED - December 2017 - 58
JED - December 2017 - 59
JED - December 2017 - 60
JED - December 2017 - 61
JED - December 2017 - 62
JED - December 2017 - AOC EW Singapore 2018 Preview
JED - December 2017 - 64
JED - December 2017 - 65
JED - December 2017 - 66
JED - December 2017 - 67
JED - December 2017 - Report from the 2017 AOC CEMA Conference
JED - December 2017 - 69
JED - December 2017 - 70
JED - December 2017 - 71
JED - December 2017 - 72
JED - December 2017 - 73
JED - December 2017 - New Products
JED - December 2017 - 75
JED - December 2017 - 76
JED - December 2017 - Recounting the History of the EW Working Group
JED - December 2017 - 78
JED - December 2017 - 79
JED - December 2017 - 80
JED - December 2017 - EW 101
JED - December 2017 - 82
JED - December 2017 - 83
JED - December 2017 - 84
JED - December 2017 - AOC 2017 Annual Award Winners
JED - December 2017 - 86
JED - December 2017 - 87
JED - December 2017 - 88
JED - December 2017 - 89
JED - December 2017 - 90
JED - December 2017 - 91
JED - December 2017 - 92
JED - December 2017 - 93
JED - December 2017 - 94
JED - December 2017 - AOC News
JED - December 2017 - 96
JED - December 2017 - Index of Advertisers
JED - December 2017 - JED Quick Look
JED - December 2017 - cover3
JED - December 2017 - cover4
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