JED - December 2017 - 32

network. In addition, one way of looking
at bandwidth is that it represents the
ELINT system's spectral IFOV and to improve POI, the wider the bandwidth the
better. Of course, the opening up of the
ELINT system's IFOV in more than one
domain increases it vulnerabilities to interference, and this issue must form part
of the system design considerations.
High Interference and EM
Spectrum Encroachment
The ongoing trend of reallocating
portions of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (EMS) for commercial use has
added a growing number of interfering signals into the channels adjacent
to many emitters of interest. These
interfering signals are often in-band
for wideband operating modes. Below
6 GHz, spectrum congestion makes it
difficult for a wide-open receiver to
detect many of the key radars in the
A2AD bubble. Moreover, the drive to
high POI performance, by its very nature, opens up the ELINT system to occurrences of interference.
The Electromagnetic Environment
(EME) in both peace and war will contain

a high population of intentional (jammers) and unintentional interferers.
When operating against the A2AD bubble, especially in large population areas
or around a littoral environment close
to major ports and shipping lanes, the
ELINT system will be exposed to myriad
interfering signals. These can severely
degrade its operation and also result in
the collection of a significant amount
of poor-quality data. Poor-quality data
exacts a price from the EW cycle, since
it consumes precious analysis time that
is critical during the opening phase of a
conflict. Furthermore, time coincidence
between the threat emitter signal of
interest and any interfering signal also
creates the potential for parametric errors that result in ambiguous identification and emitter sorting congestion.
To support high immunity to interference, the ELINT system must use multiple layers of hardware filtering and a
high-dynamic-range digital receiver.
Hardware filters are important throughout the system architecture, since digital
filters and channelizers are of virtually
no benefit, as the analog-to-digital con-

verter in the digital receiver approaches
saturation. This also implies that the
digital receiver needs to have a digitizer
that can support a high instantaneous
dynamic range, which should be as good
or better than its older analog equivalent, where 60 to 70 dB spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) was not uncommon.
Filtering to improve immunity to
interference in the ELINT system's low
noise amplifiers, necessary for ensuring good system sensitivity through a
low system noise figure (NF), is also an
important consideration. In a dense and
interfering environment, the front-end
amplifiers could be driven hard enough
that the intermodulation products generated as they approach compression, unnecessarily increase the ELINT system's
false alarm rate (FAR). As the emitter
density in environment increases, the
more exacerbating the problem becomes.
Interestingly, very few, if any, ELINT
system specifications contain a system
level measure of interference immunity or
signal to interference ratio (S/I). In part,
this is due to having no internationally
agreed method by which such a test could

The Journal of Electronic Defense | December 2017

32

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JED - December 2017

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - December 2017

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
Washington Report
World Report
An Approach to UAV-Based ELINT
Combined EW and Cyber Event Illuminates Important Issues and Disconnects
Technology Survey: RF Tuners and Tuner Modules for SIGINT Applications
AOC EW Singapore 2018 Preview
Report from the 2017 AOC CEMA Conference
New Products
Recounting the History of the EW Working Group
EW 101
AOC 2017 Annual Award Winners
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - December 2017 - intro
JED - December 2017 - cover1
JED - December 2017 - cover2
JED - December 2017 - 3
JED - December 2017 - 4
JED - December 2017 - 5
JED - December 2017 - The View From Here
JED - December 2017 - 7
JED - December 2017 - Conferences Calendar
JED - December 2017 - 9
JED - December 2017 - Courses Calendar
JED - December 2017 - 11
JED - December 2017 - From the President
JED - December 2017 - 13
JED - December 2017 - 14
JED - December 2017 - insert1
JED - December 2017 - insert2
JED - December 2017 - The Monitor
JED - December 2017 - 16
JED - December 2017 - 17
JED - December 2017 - 18
JED - December 2017 - 19
JED - December 2017 - 20
JED - December 2017 - 21
JED - December 2017 - 22
JED - December 2017 - 23
JED - December 2017 - Washington Report
JED - December 2017 - 25
JED - December 2017 - World Report
JED - December 2017 - 27
JED - December 2017 - An Approach to UAV-Based ELINT
JED - December 2017 - 29
JED - December 2017 - 30
JED - December 2017 - 31
JED - December 2017 - 32
JED - December 2017 - 33
JED - December 2017 - 34
JED - December 2017 - 35
JED - December 2017 - 36
JED - December 2017 - 37
JED - December 2017 - 38
JED - December 2017 - 39
JED - December 2017 - 40
JED - December 2017 - Combined EW and Cyber Event Illuminates Important Issues and Disconnects
JED - December 2017 - 42
JED - December 2017 - 43
JED - December 2017 - 44
JED - December 2017 - 45
JED - December 2017 - 46
JED - December 2017 - 47
JED - December 2017 - 48
JED - December 2017 - Technology Survey: RF Tuners and Tuner Modules for SIGINT Applications
JED - December 2017 - insert3
JED - December 2017 - insert4
JED - December 2017 - 50
JED - December 2017 - 51
JED - December 2017 - 52
JED - December 2017 - 53
JED - December 2017 - 54
JED - December 2017 - 55
JED - December 2017 - 56
JED - December 2017 - 57
JED - December 2017 - 58
JED - December 2017 - 59
JED - December 2017 - 60
JED - December 2017 - 61
JED - December 2017 - 62
JED - December 2017 - AOC EW Singapore 2018 Preview
JED - December 2017 - 64
JED - December 2017 - 65
JED - December 2017 - 66
JED - December 2017 - 67
JED - December 2017 - Report from the 2017 AOC CEMA Conference
JED - December 2017 - 69
JED - December 2017 - 70
JED - December 2017 - 71
JED - December 2017 - 72
JED - December 2017 - 73
JED - December 2017 - New Products
JED - December 2017 - 75
JED - December 2017 - 76
JED - December 2017 - Recounting the History of the EW Working Group
JED - December 2017 - 78
JED - December 2017 - 79
JED - December 2017 - 80
JED - December 2017 - EW 101
JED - December 2017 - 82
JED - December 2017 - 83
JED - December 2017 - 84
JED - December 2017 - AOC 2017 Annual Award Winners
JED - December 2017 - 86
JED - December 2017 - 87
JED - December 2017 - 88
JED - December 2017 - 89
JED - December 2017 - 90
JED - December 2017 - 91
JED - December 2017 - 92
JED - December 2017 - 93
JED - December 2017 - 94
JED - December 2017 - AOC News
JED - December 2017 - 96
JED - December 2017 - Index of Advertisers
JED - December 2017 - JED Quick Look
JED - December 2017 - cover3
JED - December 2017 - cover4
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