JED - December 2017 - 34

be conducted between alternative ELINT
systems architectures. A contributing
complexity would be agreeing on the time
coincident mix of signal types and characteristics and expected outcomes.
Sensitivity
Good ELINT receiver sensitivity is
critical to enabling the UAV to operate
outside the A2AD bubble. Intercept for
the ELINT system will directly rely on
sensitivity to achieve detection of emitters inside the bubble at long range.
The operating sensitivity of an ELINT
system in its simplest form is based on
the well known and so called "black
box" equation where:
System Sensitivity = KTBNF(S/N)req G
Where:
K = Boltzmans Constant
= 1.38 x 10-23 Joules/K
T = Temperature at receiver input
= 290 °K
B = Receiver bandwidth in Hz
NF = Receiver Noise Figure
(S/N)req =w Minimum signal-to-noise
ratio (SNR) required to achieve the
receiver's operational performance

G = Antenna and/or System gain
In evaluating the sensitivity equation, we can see that the expected
sensitivity is influenced by receiver
bandwidth (sometimes referred to as the
instantaneous bandwidth IBW) and antenna directional gain/system gain. The
good news is that these performance
measures are within the control of the
user in terms of ELINT system design
and operation.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
The goal of any ELINT mission is the
collection and recording of high-quality
data, which means recording with the
highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) possible. However, the minimum SNR needs
to be considered to achieve a given
minimum performance, such as reliable
emitter detection with an acceptable
false alarm rate and sufficiently accurate DF and parametric measurement for
identification purposes.
This minimum achieved SNR will depend on the user and will vary between
systems and technology and whether
there is a human or machine or both in-

The Journal of Electronic Defense | December 2017

34

Look To Norden

Block
Frequency Converter
40-70 GHz

26.5 - 40 GHz
Down Converter
4 Input / 1 Output

Fig. 2: SNR required.

volved and their respective capabilities
and skills.
Figure 2 shows the typical minimum
SNR required for various ELINT system
capabilities and needs.
Measurement Accuracy
For effective ELINT system measurement accuracy and to collect and record
high quality ELINT data, the ELINT system must be designed to maximize the
SNR at any given time under a given scenario. As a goal, we need to reduce noise
and increase signal. Noise limits measurement accuracy, dynamic range and
data quality. For example, in the measurement of pulse repetition interval
(PRI), a key emitter parameter, we will
see time interval Jitter as a function
of SNR. Figure 3 gives an indication of

10.7 - 12.75
Down Converter

Norden Millimeter designs Receivers, Down /Up Converters and
Switched Filters for the Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) market. Norden
has delivered a variety of Down and Up Converters to extend the
operating frequency range of ELINT and SIGINT systems to 70 GHz. The
down converters have been designed to accommodate input signals
from multiple antennas and provide a single output in the operating
frequency of most 0.5 -18 GHz receivers.

For more information on these products go to:
www.nordengroup.com or call 530.642.9123

803337_Norden.indd 1

Fig. 3: PRI jitter vs. S/N for various rise times.
2016-09-14 2:56 PM


http://www.nordengroup.com

JED - December 2017

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - December 2017

The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
Washington Report
World Report
An Approach to UAV-Based ELINT
Combined EW and Cyber Event Illuminates Important Issues and Disconnects
Technology Survey: RF Tuners and Tuner Modules for SIGINT Applications
AOC EW Singapore 2018 Preview
Report from the 2017 AOC CEMA Conference
New Products
Recounting the History of the EW Working Group
EW 101
AOC 2017 Annual Award Winners
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look
JED - December 2017 - intro
JED - December 2017 - cover1
JED - December 2017 - cover2
JED - December 2017 - 3
JED - December 2017 - 4
JED - December 2017 - 5
JED - December 2017 - The View From Here
JED - December 2017 - 7
JED - December 2017 - Conferences Calendar
JED - December 2017 - 9
JED - December 2017 - Courses Calendar
JED - December 2017 - 11
JED - December 2017 - From the President
JED - December 2017 - 13
JED - December 2017 - 14
JED - December 2017 - insert1
JED - December 2017 - insert2
JED - December 2017 - The Monitor
JED - December 2017 - 16
JED - December 2017 - 17
JED - December 2017 - 18
JED - December 2017 - 19
JED - December 2017 - 20
JED - December 2017 - 21
JED - December 2017 - 22
JED - December 2017 - 23
JED - December 2017 - Washington Report
JED - December 2017 - 25
JED - December 2017 - World Report
JED - December 2017 - 27
JED - December 2017 - An Approach to UAV-Based ELINT
JED - December 2017 - 29
JED - December 2017 - 30
JED - December 2017 - 31
JED - December 2017 - 32
JED - December 2017 - 33
JED - December 2017 - 34
JED - December 2017 - 35
JED - December 2017 - 36
JED - December 2017 - 37
JED - December 2017 - 38
JED - December 2017 - 39
JED - December 2017 - 40
JED - December 2017 - Combined EW and Cyber Event Illuminates Important Issues and Disconnects
JED - December 2017 - 42
JED - December 2017 - 43
JED - December 2017 - 44
JED - December 2017 - 45
JED - December 2017 - 46
JED - December 2017 - 47
JED - December 2017 - 48
JED - December 2017 - Technology Survey: RF Tuners and Tuner Modules for SIGINT Applications
JED - December 2017 - insert3
JED - December 2017 - insert4
JED - December 2017 - 50
JED - December 2017 - 51
JED - December 2017 - 52
JED - December 2017 - 53
JED - December 2017 - 54
JED - December 2017 - 55
JED - December 2017 - 56
JED - December 2017 - 57
JED - December 2017 - 58
JED - December 2017 - 59
JED - December 2017 - 60
JED - December 2017 - 61
JED - December 2017 - 62
JED - December 2017 - AOC EW Singapore 2018 Preview
JED - December 2017 - 64
JED - December 2017 - 65
JED - December 2017 - 66
JED - December 2017 - 67
JED - December 2017 - Report from the 2017 AOC CEMA Conference
JED - December 2017 - 69
JED - December 2017 - 70
JED - December 2017 - 71
JED - December 2017 - 72
JED - December 2017 - 73
JED - December 2017 - New Products
JED - December 2017 - 75
JED - December 2017 - 76
JED - December 2017 - Recounting the History of the EW Working Group
JED - December 2017 - 78
JED - December 2017 - 79
JED - December 2017 - 80
JED - December 2017 - EW 101
JED - December 2017 - 82
JED - December 2017 - 83
JED - December 2017 - 84
JED - December 2017 - AOC 2017 Annual Award Winners
JED - December 2017 - 86
JED - December 2017 - 87
JED - December 2017 - 88
JED - December 2017 - 89
JED - December 2017 - 90
JED - December 2017 - 91
JED - December 2017 - 92
JED - December 2017 - 93
JED - December 2017 - 94
JED - December 2017 - AOC News
JED - December 2017 - 96
JED - December 2017 - Index of Advertisers
JED - December 2017 - JED Quick Look
JED - December 2017 - cover3
JED - December 2017 - cover4
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