Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - (Page 12)

Impact of EPA Drinking Water Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfectant By-Product Rule By Randy Turner* Presented April 3, 2013 ABSTRACT Chlorine has been used to disinfect water since the mid 1800's which has greatly improved public health by reducing water borne diseases also reacts naturally occurring organic material and ammonia to form disinfection by-products. DBP's if consumed long term above EPA recommended levels can be detrimental to human health therefore EPA implemented drinking water standards for DBP's to reduce the impact on health. This paper discusses the potential impact of Stage 2 Rules and possibilities to implement automatic monitoring of the main control parameters, free chlorine, monochloramine and total chlorine, by means of a colorimetric measuring principle. Why Disinfection? Prior to disinfection with chlorine the death rate due to typhoid fever was over 20 per 100,000 people. Disinfection with chlorine began in 1908 *Technical Director, Swan Analytical USA, 225 Larkin Drive, Wheeling, IL 60090, (847) 229-1290, randy.turner@swananalytical-usa.com and deaths due to typhoid fever decreased around zero by 1960 as illustrated by Figure 1. Chemistry of Chlorination Free chlorine is a powerful oxidant and reacts rapidly with organic and inorganic matter. As a result, the strong disinfectant residual it initially provides may not persist as long as necessary within the distribution system. Free chlorine can readily react with organics to form unwanted disinfection byproducts (DPBs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). How does chlorine actually carry out disinfection? Depending on pH, the reaction of HOCl and water further yields equilibrium between hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion. The further dissociation, along with the two types of "hypos" (mainly hypochlorous acid which is electrically neutral), can penetrate the cell walls of the organism and displace molecules needed to survive. The organism can no longer function or replicate and eventually dies. Figure 2 illustrates how hypochlorous acid attacks microorganisms. HOCl is approx. 70-90 times stronger oxidant then the hypochlorite ion "OCl-" which is Figure 1. Deaths per 100,000 due to typhoid fever 12 Journal NEWWA March 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015

Officers of the New England Water Works Association
NEWWA 2015 Meeting & Event Schedule
On the Cover
DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction
Impact of Epa Drinking Water Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfectant by-Product Rule
Thermal Expansion Causes False Fire Alarms
Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets
Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts
Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports
Obituary: Cheryl Lynn Maduskuie
In Memoriam: Richard G. Small
Reports From the Water Research Foundation
Guidelines for the Preparation of Papers for Publication in the Journal of the New England Water Works Association
Guidelines for the Peer Review Option of the Papers Appearing in the Journal of the New England Water Works Association
Entry Form: Newwa David M. Erickson Groundwater Award
Index to Advertisers

Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015

Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - (Page cover1)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - (Page cover2)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - (Page 1a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - (Page 2a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Officers of the New England Water Works Association (Page 3a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Officers of the New England Water Works Association (Page 4a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Officers of the New England Water Works Association (Page 5a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Officers of the New England Water Works Association (Page 6a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - NEWWA 2015 Meeting & Event Schedule (Page 7a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - NEWWA 2015 Meeting & Event Schedule (Page 8a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 9a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 10a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 11a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 12a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 13a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 14a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 15a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 16a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 19)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 20)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 21)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 22)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 1)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 2)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 3)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 4)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 5)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 6)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 7)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 8)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 9)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 10)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 11)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Impact of Epa Drinking Water Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfectant by-Product Rule (Page 12)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Impact of Epa Drinking Water Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfectant by-Product Rule (Page 13)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Impact of Epa Drinking Water Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfectant by-Product Rule (Page 14)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Impact of Epa Drinking Water Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfectant by-Product Rule (Page 15)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Impact of Epa Drinking Water Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfectant by-Product Rule (Page 16)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Thermal Expansion Causes False Fire Alarms (Page 17)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Thermal Expansion Causes False Fire Alarms (Page 18)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 19)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 20)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 21)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 22)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 23)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 24)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 25)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 26)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 27)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts (Page 28)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts (Page 29)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts (Page 30)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts (Page 31)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts (Page 32)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts (Page 33)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 34)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 35)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 36)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 37)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 38)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 39)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 40)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 41)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 42)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 43)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 44)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 45)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 46)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 47)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 48)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 49)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 50)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 51)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 52)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 53)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 54)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 55)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 56)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 57)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 58)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 59)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 60)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 61)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Obituary: Cheryl Lynn Maduskuie (Page 62)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - In Memoriam: Richard G. Small (Page 63)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Reports From the Water Research Foundation (Page 64)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Reports From the Water Research Foundation (Page 65)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Reports From the Water Research Foundation (Page 66)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Reports From the Water Research Foundation (Page 67)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Reports From the Water Research Foundation (Page 68)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Reports From the Water Research Foundation (Page 69)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Guidelines for the Preparation of Papers for Publication in the Journal of the New England Water Works Association (Page 70)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Guidelines for the Peer Review Option of the Papers Appearing in the Journal of the New England Water Works Association (Page 71)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Entry Form: Newwa David M. Erickson Groundwater Award (Page 72)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 17a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 18a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 19a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 20a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 21a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 22a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 23a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 24a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page cover3)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page cover4)
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