Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - (Page 15)

Figure 6 The molecular structure of all three chloramine compounds resembles the structure of ammonia. A chlorine atom will replace one, two, and three hydrogen atoms respectively for the formation of mono-, di-, and trichloramines. Figure 4 illustrates the structure of chloramines. The formation of di-and tri-chloramine is minimized by adding a specific weight ratio of chlorine and ammonia to water while maintaining the optimal pH range. Di-and tri-chloramines can contribute an objectionable taste and odor to the treated water. Monochloramines are effective biocides that contribute least to taste and odor problems. Figure 5 illustrates what may be observed when employing chlorination only. Figure 6 illustrates the application of chloramination where the objective is to have ≤ 0.05 ppm of free chlorine to ensure overfeed of ammonia is not occurring. The difference of total chlorine less the free and monochloramine is the DBP concentration. Chloramination Process To form the monochloramine compound, the appropriate weight ratio of chlorine and ammonia must be determined and then properly managed. Free ammonia entering the distribution system must be controlled to reduce the potential for nitrification. Chloramines are weaker oxidizing agents; therefore a higher disinfectant residual is required for similar results. A chloramine residual of 2.0 mg/L is comparable to a free chlorine residual of 0.5 mg/L. All of the free chlorine will be converted to monochloramine when the pH is between 6.5 and 8.5 and the ratio of chlorine to Table 1 pH Time, Sec. 2 4 7 8.3 421 147 0.2 0.009 ammonia is equimolar, 5:1 by weight or less. Since this reaction is pH sensitive, the rate of reaction is important. Reaction rates for 99% conversion of free chlorine to monochloramine at 25o C is shown in table 1. This is why optimum pH is 6.5 to 8.5. Chlorine atoms occur in pairs and have a combined weight of just over 70 atomic mass units. The weight of ammonia is measured as N (which is why it is often expressed as NH3-N), and nitrogen has an atomic mass of 14. The difference between the weight of chlorine and ammonia (70 / 14 = 5) establishes the chlorine to ammonia weight ratio of 5:1. Dosing chlorine and ammonia based on the weight ratio of 5:1 means that the required chlorine dose will be five times greater than the ammonia dose. For example, a target chloramine dose of 3.0 mg/L will require the addition of 3.0 mg/L of chlorine and 0.60 mg/L of ammonia to keep the 5:1 ratio. The amount of each chemical to add depends on chemical strength and weight of treated water. Chemical Addition The chemical feed rate equation below is used to determine the amount of chlorine and ammonia to add. Chemical Feed Rate; lbs. per day Dose; mg/L × MGD × 8.34 = Chemical Strength (decimal %) Therefore if producing 10 MGD with at targeted monochloramine concentration of 3.0 mg/L using Journal NEWWA March 2015 15

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015

Officers of the New England Water Works Association
NEWWA 2015 Meeting & Event Schedule
On the Cover
DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction
Impact of Epa Drinking Water Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfectant by-Product Rule
Thermal Expansion Causes False Fire Alarms
Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets
Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts
Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports
Obituary: Cheryl Lynn Maduskuie
In Memoriam: Richard G. Small
Reports From the Water Research Foundation
Guidelines for the Preparation of Papers for Publication in the Journal of the New England Water Works Association
Guidelines for the Peer Review Option of the Papers Appearing in the Journal of the New England Water Works Association
Entry Form: Newwa David M. Erickson Groundwater Award
Index to Advertisers

Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015

Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - (Page cover1)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - (Page cover2)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - (Page 1a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - (Page 2a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Officers of the New England Water Works Association (Page 3a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Officers of the New England Water Works Association (Page 4a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Officers of the New England Water Works Association (Page 5a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Officers of the New England Water Works Association (Page 6a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - NEWWA 2015 Meeting & Event Schedule (Page 7a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - NEWWA 2015 Meeting & Event Schedule (Page 8a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 9a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 10a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 11a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 12a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 13a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 14a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 15a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - On the Cover (Page 16a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 19)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 20)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 21)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 22)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 1)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 2)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 3)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 4)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 5)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 6)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 7)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 8)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 9)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 10)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - DAF Pilot Study for Algae and DBP Reduction (Page 11)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Impact of Epa Drinking Water Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfectant by-Product Rule (Page 12)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Impact of Epa Drinking Water Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfectant by-Product Rule (Page 13)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Impact of Epa Drinking Water Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfectant by-Product Rule (Page 14)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Impact of Epa Drinking Water Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfectant by-Product Rule (Page 15)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Impact of Epa Drinking Water Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfectant by-Product Rule (Page 16)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Thermal Expansion Causes False Fire Alarms (Page 17)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Thermal Expansion Causes False Fire Alarms (Page 18)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 19)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 20)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 21)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 22)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 23)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 24)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 25)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 26)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Preserving the Historical Beacon Hill Reservoir Granite Tablets (Page 27)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts (Page 28)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts (Page 29)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts (Page 30)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts (Page 31)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts (Page 32)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Water System Profile : Town of Kingston, Massachusetts (Page 33)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 34)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 35)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 36)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 37)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 38)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 39)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 40)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 41)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 42)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 43)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 44)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 45)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 46)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 47)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 48)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 49)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 50)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 51)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 52)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 53)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 54)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 55)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 56)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 57)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 58)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 59)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 60)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Proceedings: New England Water Works Association 2013-2014 Committee Reports (Page 61)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Obituary: Cheryl Lynn Maduskuie (Page 62)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - In Memoriam: Richard G. Small (Page 63)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Reports From the Water Research Foundation (Page 64)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Reports From the Water Research Foundation (Page 65)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Reports From the Water Research Foundation (Page 66)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Reports From the Water Research Foundation (Page 67)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Reports From the Water Research Foundation (Page 68)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Reports From the Water Research Foundation (Page 69)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Guidelines for the Preparation of Papers for Publication in the Journal of the New England Water Works Association (Page 70)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Guidelines for the Peer Review Option of the Papers Appearing in the Journal of the New England Water Works Association (Page 71)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Entry Form: Newwa David M. Erickson Groundwater Award (Page 72)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 17a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 18a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 19a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 20a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 21a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 22a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 23a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page 24a)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page cover3)
Journal of The New England Water Works Association - Spring 2015 - Index to Advertisers (Page cover4)
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