Journal of The New England Water Works Association - June 2015 - (Page 73)

NEW ENGLAND WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION ORGANIZED 1882 VOL. CXXIX June 2015 NO. 2 This Association, as a body, is not responsible for the statements or opinions of any individual. Cyanobacteria in Reservoirs: Causes, Consequences, Controls By Robert W. Kortmann, Ph.D.* Presented September 22, 2014 ABSTRACT Cyanobacteria cause water treatment difficulties including taste and odor episodes, chemical dose fluctuation, shortened filter runs, and increased disinfectant demand (increasing DBP formation). Some Cyanobacteria produce hepatotoxins and neurotoxins that have acute or chronic health effects. Cyanobacteria genera occupy a variety of habitat niches, including phytoplanktonic populations and benthic mats. Some genera have a low light requirement, allowing them to inhabit deeper strata, benthic habitat, and to grow during Fall and Winter. Some genera are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen and can become very buoyant. Reservoir features that stimulate Cyanobacteria include the N:P Ratio, Silica Limitation of Diatoms, CO2 availability, pH shifts, Light Penetration and Mixing Depth (De),and Herbivore Grazing Rate. Reservoir management approaches to reduce Cyanobacteria include Artificial Circulation, Hypolimnetic and Layer Aeration, Flow Routing, Reservoir Partitioning, Depth-Selective Outflow and Supply Withdrawal, Biomanipulation, and Algaecides. Introduction to the Ecology of Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria is a Phylum of Bacteria. Cyanobacteria are protein-rich prokaryotes; they have a cell structure like bacteria. It is important to distinguish the Cyanobacteria from Algae, which are cellulose-rich eukaryotes. * Cyanobacteria is a Phylum of Bacteria that obtain energy via Photosynthesis. *Limnologist/President, Ecosystem Consulting Service, Inc., P.O. Box 370, Coventry, CT 06238, (860) 742-0744, * Cyanobacteria are Prokaryotic (Algae are Eukaryotic). * Cyanobacteria Have a High Protein Content (Amine Groups) (Indeed, some Cyanobacteria are sold as Health Food Supplements). * Cyanobacteria have inhabited Earth for over 2.5 Billion Years. * Ancestral Cyanobacteria evolved the ability to use Water as an Electron Donor in Photosynthesis, creating our aerobic atmosphere. * Cyanobacteria can use only Cyclic Photophosphorylation (PSI) with Alternate Electron Donors in Anaerobic Environments (Low Light Requirement). * Some Cyanobacteria can reduce elemental sulfur (Anaerobic Respiration). * Some Cyanobacteria can live heterotrophically (like other Bacteria). Cyanobacteria have long been known to produce compounds such as 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin, which cause taste and odor episodes. More recently, the Cyanobacteria have become even more of a concern because some species produce Cyanotoxins, such as the recent Microcystis bloom in western Lake Erie. Long-term exposure to cyanotoxins has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Lou Gehrig's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's disease. Over the several billion years that Cyanobacteria have inhabited the Earth, they have evolved numerous competitive strategies. Light Intensity: Cyanobacteria have Accessory Pigments. They can harvest green, yellow, and orange wavelengths, and can live in environments with only green light. As a result, some Cyanobacteria can grow under low light intensity in deeper reservoir strata. Journal NEWWA June 2015 73

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Journal of The New England Water Works Association - June 2015

Officers of the New England Water Works Association
NEWWA 2015-2017 Meeting & Event Schedule
On The Cover
Cyanobacteria in Reservoirs: Causes, Consequences, Controls
With a Little Help from our Friends: Collaborating to Protect a Water Supply
Salem's Folly Hill Reservoir: Inspecting and Rehabilitating a Century-Old Concrete Tank
Restrained Joint Ductile Iron Pipe Proven Reliable for Stressful Utility Installations
Water System Profile: Southington, Connecticut Water System
Urgent Need for Papers!!
Guidelines for the Preparation of Papers for Publication in the Journal of the New England Water Works Association
Guidelines for the Peer Review Option of the Papers Appearing in the Journal of the New England Water Works Association
Index to Advertisers

Journal of The New England Water Works Association - June 2015