Constructor - January/February 2018 - 31

Thompson-Starrett (the latter a major
player in AGC's early days), it was constructed in an era of big industry change.
"That steel frame was something beyond
what architectural training could handle, beyond what most engineers could
do," Leslie says. "At that point, you really
needed to crunch the numbers. Before
buildings like the Woolworth, many architects simply had an in-house engineer.
Here's where the industry starts to see
specialist engineering practices develop."
The Chrysler Building (1930) & the
Empire State Building (1931): A beacon
of art deco style, the Chrysler Building,
at 1,046 feet, took the "world's tallest"
torch from Woolworth, even if only briefly,
upon its completion. Fred T. Ley, Chrysler's
builder, was at the founding convention of
the AGC while the title-eclipsing Empire
State (its dirigible mast, a late addition that
was never used, curiously helped propel
it to world's tallest at 1,250 feet) was led
by Starrett Corporation. Value engineering
aside, there were other industry feats afoot.
"Technology changes were amazing,"
Leslie points out. "Better, faster elevators, a better understanding of safety
principles and what's also interesting
is what doesn't change. Both still rely
on windows being opened to cool the
building in the summertime."
The speed at which the Empire State
Building - 57,000 tons of steel, more
than 60,000 cubic yards of concrete, 60+
elevators in miles of shafts - was a true
marvel. It went up at a rate of nearly five
stories a week. Twenty months, startto-finish, it was completed ahead of
schedule. Constructors pushed the limits of their energy and expertise defying
gravity, but the leasing agents couldn't
defy economics. The building's office
space went unused for quite a while due
to the Depression, long enough to garner
sarcastic criticism. Its early nickname was
the "Empty State Building."
The Glass Box: It's a ubiquitous term,
generally used in reference to the post-war
skyscraper, many of which were built in
the 1950s and '60s. But you couldn't move
from the Empire State Building's steel and
stone to glass without the advent of something truly spectacular: air conditioning.
"Not only do you need indoor climate
control," Willis adds, "you need much
better, cheaper glass."
@Constr uctor Ma g

Glazing, he notes, became cheaper
through the '30s and '40s, but insulated
glazing was a lot trickier. Even cooler? It
was actually top secret.
"World War II fighter pilots had an
issue. Breathing heavy, they were fogging up the windshields and couldn't
see where they were going. It created
a wartime need for canopy glass that
wouldn't fog."
After the war, the company needed
to find a new market for their product.
"This is where you start to see picture
windows being installed into houses and
the first, real glassy curtains in commercial construction - the Equitable
Building in Portland in 1949 was the
first, Lever House in Manhattan, Inland
Steel in Chicago.
Steel construction, he notes, didn't
change that much. Contractors are using
more welding than riveting. Eventually
bolting. What changes is the ability to
compute and calculate.
And then came the '70s...
The Willis Tower (1974): The energy
crisis brought with it concerns over glass
for myriad reasons. Glass boxes began
to fade, and then came the marvel of the
Sears Tower (now Willis), built by Morse
Diesel International, an AGC of America
member, but Leslie says that for all its
phenomenal bundled tube structural
design, one of its greatest accomplishments was the delivery of its components
down to a science.

"They standardized as much of the
steel as they could and literally just had
trucks show up almost precisely when
they needed it. They'd crane it up into
place, bolt it in and be ready for the next.
The prefabrication was sophisticated and
timed so well that it went up in under
two years."
Much of it, notably, amid Chicago's
disagreeable snow, sleet and wind and
while keeping costs within 1 percent of
the estimate.
Prefab wasn't new, but the ability
to fine tune its delivery was one of this
building's greatest contributions to the
industry.
The Sears Tower remained the world's
tallest building for a quarter-century.
One World Trade (2014): It's the tallest in North America, sixth tallest in the
world at 1,776 feet, but to onlookers -
Americans and New Yorkers especially, it
recaptures the downtown sky, acknowledging the past while anchoring itself as
a new icon for business, emblematic of
the nation and its people.
AECOM Tishman, an Associated
Construction Contractors of New Jersey
and AGC of New York State member, built
the Twin Towers in the early '70s. They
returned, using Building Information
Modeling (BIM) to coordinate the impressive process and a "cocoon system" for
safety. The wrap enveloped 16 floors at
a time, the first ever on a hybrid steel
and concrete building. There were zero

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Constructor - January/February 2018

Editor’s Note
President’s Message
CEO’s Letter
Come for the Puppies, Stay for the Mission
Simonson Says
2018 Regulatory Update: AGC Leaves No Stone Unturned
De-Constructing Delays and Disruptions: Task Force Tackles an Ever-Increasing Problem
Workforce Development Is Priority One
Going Up
Technology Toolbox
Improving Safety With Building Information Modeling Technology
Book Shelf
The 99th Annual AGC Convention: Celebrating 100 Years of Construction
Member and Chapter News
Overcoming Permit Delays
2018 Service & Supply Buyers’ Guide – a Special Advertising Section
Products & Services Marketplace
Index to Advertisers
Constructor - January/February 2018 - Intro
Constructor - January/February 2018 - cover1
Constructor - January/February 2018 - cover2
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 3
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 4
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 5
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 6
Constructor - January/February 2018 - Editor’s Note
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 8
Constructor - January/February 2018 - President’s Message
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 10
Constructor - January/February 2018 - CEO’s Letter
Constructor - January/February 2018 - Come for the Puppies, Stay for the Mission
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 13
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 14
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 15
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 16
Constructor - January/February 2018 - Simonson Says
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 18
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 2018 Regulatory Update: AGC Leaves No Stone Unturned
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 20
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 21
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 22
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 23
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 24
Constructor - January/February 2018 - De-Constructing Delays and Disruptions: Task Force Tackles an Ever-Increasing Problem
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 26
Constructor - January/February 2018 - Workforce Development Is Priority One
Constructor - January/February 2018 - Going Up
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 29
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 30
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 31
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 32
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 33
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 34
Constructor - January/February 2018 - Technology Toolbox
Constructor - January/February 2018 - Improving Safety With Building Information Modeling Technology
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 37
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 38
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 39
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 40
Constructor - January/February 2018 - Book Shelf
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 42
Constructor - January/February 2018 - The 99th Annual AGC Convention: Celebrating 100 Years of Construction
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 44
Constructor - January/February 2018 - Member and Chapter News
Constructor - January/February 2018 - Overcoming Permit Delays
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 47
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 48
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 2018 Service & Supply Buyers’ Guide – a Special Advertising Section
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 50
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 51
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 52
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 53
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 54
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 55
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 56
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 57
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 58
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 59
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 60
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 61
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 62
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 63
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 64
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 65
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 66
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 67
Constructor - January/February 2018 - Products & Services Marketplace
Constructor - January/February 2018 - 69
Constructor - January/February 2018 - Index to Advertisers
Constructor - January/February 2018 - cover3
Constructor - January/February 2018 - cover4
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