PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 22

2

3

4

Figure 1. Flange on exterior portion of window that yields a gap between the siding and the window.
Figure 2. A window weep hole, the horizontal opening in the metal frame, allows for moisture to escape. In this image, a dead stink bug
is stuck in the weep hole.
Two insect light traps were used as monitors in each unit: Catchmaster SilenTraps were used in living spaces where they could be plugged
in (Figure 3), while Catchmaster GLOStik Flying Insect Traps are battery operated and could be placed in attics (Figure 4), out of reach of
children and pets.

1

Figure 3. SilenTrap in a resident's home.
Figure 4. GLOStik in attic with daylight from soffit vent visible.

Given the lack of empirical data, resident
observations represent an alternative method
of evaluating the project. In a preliminary survey, 66.7% (n = 18) of residents indicated that
BMSB were a problem in their homes for several
years (Figure 5), and 71.4% (n = 18) regarded
the pests as a moderate (4-7 bugs per year) to
major problem (10+ bugs per year; Figure 6).
In a follow-up survey, the majority of residents
(68%) reported that BMSB problems decreased
during the study period, while 32% indicated
no change in their pest status (Figure 7). The
reported decrease in BMSB activity seemed
independent of treatment (Figure 8), and along
with low trap catch could have resulted from
several factors.
The method of trap deployment within
homes could have contributed to low trap
counts. SilenTrap placement was not standardized because units are variably oriented
within the complex, facing different directions. Therefore, residents were asked to
place SilenTraps in rooms where stink bugs
had previously been observed. After installation, some residents elected to place devices
behind furniture or in rooms infrequently occupied to avoid the low hum sound and light
emitted by devices. Thus, trap placement, as
well as competition from other light sources
(windows, lights, electronic devices) could have
limited catches.
A second possible cause for reduced trap
catches are regional reductions in BMSB populations. Anecdotal evidence suggests that
recent hot summers have desiccated BMSB
egg-masses, and that native predators and
22 |

PESTWORLD > JULY | AUGUST 2017

parasitoids now recognize these insects as a
food source. Parasitism rates are expected to
increase following the accidental introduction
of a native egg-parasitoid of BMSB, Trissolcus
japonicas, which exhibited parasitism rates
of 70 to 90% on sentinel egg masses in the
Hudson Valley (Jentsch 2016). Along with
other BMSB management techniques such as
trapping and pesticide applications (Rice et al.
2014), these factors may explain why residents
in both treatment and control units reported
a decrease in the pest status during the study.
Exclusion is expanding as a proactive prevention method in the pest management
industry. Although the research site in this
study exhibited little variation in the structure
of windows and doors, the various openings
encountered necessitate different materials
for proper exclusion. Gaps less than one inch
around windows and doors could be sealed
with an exterior sealant, but window weeps
and larger gaps require different materials
that provide an exit for moisture to escape
the frame and to fill large voids, respectively.
Metal mesh fibers, such as one inch Xcluder
Strips, could be used in this setting to prevent
overwintering pest entry while simultaneously
allowing water to escape, though this has not
yet been tested. Importantly, pest professionals interested in exclusion should undertake
extensive ladder training for safety of climbers and spotters to comply with regulations
set forth by the U.S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(www.osha.gov). While a 35-foot ladder was
sufficient to reach all windows in this study,

it would not have reached soffits, which pose
greater falling hazards. Finally, pest exclusion
is not a one-time fix for pest problems. Regular
inspections are needed to verify that products
are effective.
The brown marmorated stink bug has been
extensively studied for its economic impact in
agricultural systems, including efforts to understand food preferences (Bergmann et al. 2016)
and migration to production fields (Rice et al.
2016). However, limited research is available
on the biology of this insect around structures,
likely because it is considered a nuisance pest
with no documented human health impacts
or economic damage to structures. Based on
the outcomes of this experiment and low trap
catches indoors, an observational approach
is needed to more completely characterize
the overwintering biology of these insects.
Specifically, details about BMSB movement
on structures, how exactly they enter buildings,
and where they overwinter indoors is lacking.
These observations can help to prioritize which
zones on a building should be sealed to prevent
pest entry.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Kathy Schneiderman, Marshall Kanter and Curtis
Wegner provided access to the research site;
George Ricketts coordinated resident visits;
Ed Dulshon provided additional supplies and
guidance; F. Frye provided field assistance, and
J. Gangloff-Kaufmann provided technical assistance and feedback. This project was funded by
the Pest Management Foundation, an affiliate of
the National Pest Management Association. ●


http://www.osha.gov

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of PestWorld - July/August 2017

Cultivating Confidence
Boost Your Bottom Line
Staffing Challenges as a Pest Management Business Grows
Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs
How to Fire an Employee Legally and Fairly
President’s Message
Standards: Calibrating Your Business Operations
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - Intro
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 1
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 2
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 3
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 4
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 5
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 6
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 7
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - President’s Message
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 9
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - Cultivating Confidence
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 11
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 12
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 13
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - Boost Your Bottom Line
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 15
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - Staffing Challenges as a Pest Management Business Grows
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 17
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 18
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 19
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 21
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 22
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 23
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - Standards: Calibrating Your Business Operations
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 25
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 26
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 27
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - How to Fire an Employee Legally and Fairly
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 29
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 30
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 31
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 32
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 33
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 34
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 35
PestWorld - July/August 2017 - 36
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