PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 39

❱❱ ASK THE EXPERT
BY MICHAEL BENTLEY, PH.D.

Q:
A: 

Why is it often necessary to make multiple applications
to eliminate a cat flea infestation?

The need for multiple applications has a lot to do with the
flea's biology and behavior. Fleas undergo complete metamorphosis, meaning they have four life stages: egg, larva, pupa and
adult. During both the egg and the pupal stage, fleas are protected from
hazardous environmental conditions by naturally produced shelters: the
shell in the egg stage, and the cocoon in the pupal stage. Unfortunately
for pest professionals, the egg shell and the cocoon can also shelter
developing fleas from pesticides. Therefore, a single application can
reduce larval and adult populations, but will have little effect on eggs
and pupae.
Another reason why a flea job may require multiple applications
is because fleas can remain in the cocoon as pre-emerged adults for
up to 20 weeks. They wait for cues such as vibrations or an increase in
temperature to signal that a host has arrived. This behavior explains
why vacationing homeowners with a small flea problem can leave for a
few weeks, and be greeted by large numbers of hungry fleas when they
return. This also explains why follow-up applications may be necessary
to reduce adult populations.

Q:
A: 

How do I distinguish between a cigarette and a drugstore beetle?

Cigarette and drugstore beetles are two of the most common stored product pests found in homes. Adults of both
species are small (1/16 to 1/8") and light-brown, they both have an oval
shaped body, and their heads are concealed by a hood-like prothorax.
They can even be found infesting several of the same foods including
flours, dried fruits, herbs and spices.
Despite the many similarities between cigarette and drugstore
beetles, there are three key features that can be used to distinguish between the two species. First, hairs covering the body of
cigarette beetle larvae are comparably longer than the hairs found
on drugstore beetle larvae. Second, the antennae of cigarette beetle
adults are serrated, much like the teeth of a saw blade. However, drugstore beetle antennae are not serrated and end in a 3-segmented club.
Lastly, the elytra of adult cigarette beetles are smooth, whereas drugstore beetle elytra have rows of pits, giving them a lined appearance.

PESTWORLD > SEPTEMBER | OCTOBER 2017

| 39



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of PestWorld - September/October 2017

President’s Message
Employment Law 101
Safety First
Nine Legal Problems You Can Avoid
Making Safety Part of the Job
Pestworld Preview
Lyme Disease: A Clinical Look at a Multisystem Disorder
Marketing Corner: Five Steps to Nail a Media Interview
Standards: Qualitypro Charts the Future of Credentialing
Ask the Expert
The Cost of a Data Breach Could Put Your Pest Control Operation Out of Business
Membership Programs: The New Npma Health Insurance Exchange
Calendar of Events
Index of Advertisers
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - intro
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - cover1
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - cover2
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 3
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 4
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 5
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 6
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 7
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - President’s Message
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 9
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - Employment Law 101
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 11
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 12
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 13
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - Safety First
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 15
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 16
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 17
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - Nine Legal Problems You Can Avoid
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 19
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 20
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 21
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - Making Safety Part of the Job
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 23
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 24
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 25
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - Pestworld Preview
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 27
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 28
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 29
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 30
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - Lyme Disease: A Clinical Look at a Multisystem Disorder
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 32
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 33
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - Marketing Corner: Five Steps to Nail a Media Interview
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 35
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - Standards: Qualitypro Charts the Future of Credentialing
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 37
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 38
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - Ask the Expert
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - The Cost of a Data Breach Could Put Your Pest Control Operation Out of Business
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 41
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 42
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - Membership Programs: The New Npma Health Insurance Exchange
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - 44
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - Calendar of Events
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - Index of Advertisers
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - cover3
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - cover4
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - divider1
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - divider2
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - outsert3
PestWorld - September/October 2017 - outsert4
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