Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 45

height for a thermometer is between 1 - 2 meters (WMO). The
weather station may be several miles or more from the location
of concrete placement. Forecast data provided by the NDFD and
used in the calculator are predictions, not actual measurements,
and the further out in the week the forecast the more uncertain
the accuracy of the data (Myrick and Horel). Therefore, the
output of the calculator is only a prediction of the possibility of
unfavorable concrete placement conditions in the future. The
calculator is an educational tool that can be used to help the
concrete contractor prepare ahead of time, not unlike carrying
an umbrella if there is a chance of rain.
Determining the potential for unfavorable weather conditions
for concrete placement is only one component of the process for
ensuring quality concrete. Quality concrete begins with quality
ingredients and a good mix design. Proper placement and curing
procedures are essential. Knowing what mixes and placements
are most likely to induce plastic shrinkage cracks and how to
avoid or counteract for these situations is the key. Plastic shrinkage cracks can be avoided with proper care. Avoiding conditions
likely to cause plastic shrinkage cracks is one way. Knowing
the placement conditions may be unfavorable beforehand and
planning ahead to ensure aggressive curing and protection procedures are implemented will help to prevent plastic shrinkage
cracks from occurring. As noted in ACI 305R -10, inexperience with the proper techniques to ensure quality concrete and
belated attempts to prevent damage due to unfavorable weather
conditions will likely lead to poor quality and even permanent
damage to concrete.
The results provided by the SIUE calculator are intended
for educational and informational purposes only. Please direct
inquiries about the SIUE plastic shrinkage crack calculator site
to awerner@siue.edu or mgrinte@siue.edu.
■

References

ACI 305R-10, Hot Weather Concreting, American Concrete Institute, Farmington
Hills, MI, www.concrete.org.
ACI 308R-01, Guide to Curing Concrete, American Concrete Institute,
Farmington Hills, MI, www.concrete.org.
NRMCA, Concrete in Practice, CIP 5 - Plastic Shrinkage Cracking, National
Ready Mixed Concrete Association, Silver Spring, MD, www.nrmca.org.
Hover, K.C., "Evaporation of Water from Concrete Surfaces," ACI Materials
Journal, Sept-Oct 2006, Vol. 103, No. 5., pp. 384 - 389.

Mark Grinter, P.L.S., is associate professor, chairman,
Department of Construction, School of Engineering, Southern
Illinois University Edwardsville, Box 1803, Edwardsville,
Illinois, 62026; 618-650-5019; mgrinter@siue.edu.
Daniel Grote, Bryan Allen and Zack Smith, are undergraduate students, Department of Computer Science,
School of Engineering, Southern Illinois University
Edwardsville, Box 1656, Edwardsville, Illinois, 62026.

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Myrick, D.T. and Horel, J.D., "Verification of Surface Temperature Forecasts
from the National Digital Forecast Database over the Western United States,"
American Meteorological Society, October 2006, pp. 869 - 892.
NWSI 10-201 National Weather Service Instruction 10-201, Operations and
Services, National Digital Forecast Database and Local Database Description
and Specifications, 19 Aug 2014.
Ramey, G.E. and Carden, A.C., "An Assessment of Concrete Bridge Deck
Evaporation Rates and Curing Requirement Categories for Alabama," HRC
Research Project 2-13746, Feb 1998.
Uno, P. J., "Plastic Shrinkage Cracking and Evaporation Formulas," ACI
Materials Journal, July - Aug 1998, Vol. 95, No. 4, pp. 365
WMO, World Meteorological Organization, Guide to Meteorological Instruments
and Methods of Observation, WMO-No. 8, 2008.

Anne M Werner, P.E., Ph.D., is associate professor,
Department of Construction, School of Engineering, Southern
Illinois University Edwardsville, Box 1803, Edwardsville,
Illinois, 62026; 618-650-5191; awerner@siue.edu.

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45


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017

From the President’s Desk
Corporate Suite Column
Enviroscene Column
Strong and Efficient: Insulating Concrete Forms for Multifamily Residential Construction
Cut the Cost of Workers’ Compensation Insurance in the Concrete Industry
Engineering: Specifications for Concrete Construction
Predicting the Potential for Plastic Shrinkage Cracks
2017 Product Preview
Index of Advertisers
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - belly1
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - belly2
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - cover1
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - cover2
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 3
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 4
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 5
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 6
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 7
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 8
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 9
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 10
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - From the President’s Desk
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 12
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - Corporate Suite Column
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 14
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 15
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - Enviroscene Column
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 17
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - Strong and Efficient: Insulating Concrete Forms for Multifamily Residential Construction
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 19
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 20
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 21
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 22
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 23
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 24
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 25
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 26
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 27
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 28
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 29
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 30
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - Cut the Cost of Workers’ Compensation Insurance in the Concrete Industry
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 32
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 33
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 34
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 35
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 36
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - Engineering: Specifications for Concrete Construction
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 38
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 39
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 40
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - Predicting the Potential for Plastic Shrinkage Cracks
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 42
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 43
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 44
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 45
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 2017 Product Preview
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 47
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 48
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 49
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 50
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 51
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 52
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 53
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - Index of Advertisers
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - cover3
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - cover4
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - divider1
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - divider2
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 57
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 58
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 59
Concrete inFocus - Spring 2017 - 60
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