Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC17

Appendix A
(ACI 318-14) Table 19.3.1.1 - Exposure categories and classes
Category

Freezing and thawing (F)

Sulfate (S)

In contact with water (W)

Corrosion protection of
reinforcement (C)

(1)
(2)

Class

Condition

F0

Concrete not exposed to freezing and thawing cycles

F1

Concrete exposed to freezing and thawing cycles with limited exposure to water

F2

Concrete exposed to freezing and thawing cycles with frequent exposure to water

F3

Concrete exposed to freezing and thawing cycles with frequent exposure to water and
exposure to deicing chemicals
Water-soluble sulfate (SO42-) in soil, percent by mass(1)

Dissolved sulfate (SO42-) in water, ppm(2)

S0

SO42-< 0.10

SO42-< 150

S1

0.10 ≤ SO42-< 0.20

150 ≤ SO42-< 1500
or seawater

S2

0.20 ≤ SO42-< 2.00

150 ≤ SO42-< 1500

S3

SO4 > 2.00

SO42-> 10,000

2-

W0

Concrete dry in service
Concrete in contact with water and low permeability is not required

W1

Concrete in contact with water and low permeability is required

C0

Concrete dry or protected from moisture

C1

Concrete exposed to moisture but not to an external source of chlorides

C2

Concrete exposed to moisture and an external source of chlorides from deicing chemicals, salt, brackish water,
seawater, or spray from these sources

Percent sulfate by mass in soil shall be determined by ASTM C1580
Concentration of dissolved sulfates in water, in ppm, shall be determined by ASTM D512 or ASTM D4130

(ACI 318-14) Table R19.3.1-Examples of structural members in Exposure Category F
Exposure
Class

Examples

F0

*	
*	
*	
*	

Members in climates where freezing temperatures will not be encountered
Members that are inside structures and will not be exposed to freezing
Foundations not exposed to freezing
Members that are buried in soil below the frost line

F1

*	 Members that will not be subject to snow and ice accumulation, such as exterior walls, beams, girders and slabs not in
direct contact with soil
*	 Foundation walls may be in this class depending upon their likelihood of being saturated

F2

*	 Members that will be subject to snow and ice accumulation, such as exterior elevated slabs
*	 Foundation or basement walls extending above grade that have snow and ice buildup against them
*	 Horizontal and vertical members in contact with soil

F3

*	 Members exposed to deicing chemicals, such as horizontal members in parking structures
*	 Foundation or basement walls extending above grade that can experience accumulation of snow and ice with deicing chemicals

References
	 1.	 ACI Committee 329, "Report on Performance-Based Requirements for Concrete (ACI 329R-14)," American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2014, 46 pp.
	 2.	 Bickley, J., Hooton, R.D., Hover, K.C., "Preparation of a Performance-based Specification for Cast-in-Place Concrete," RMC Research Foundation, January 2006,
http://www.rmc-foundation.org/images/Phase%20I%20Report%20Final%20January%202006.pdf, 155 pp.
	 3.	 NRMCA Research Engineering and Standards Committee, SIP 1-5, Specification in practices series, https://www.nrmca.org/aboutconcrete/sips/default.asp.
	 4.	 ACI Committee 318, "Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-14) and Commentary (ACI 318R-14)," 2014, 519 pp.
	 5.	 ACI Committee 301, Specification for Structural Concrete (ACI 301-16), 2016, 64 pp.
	 6.	 ASTM C94, C157, C403, C469, C567, C618, C672, C989, C1012, C1202, C1218, C1240, C1293, C1556, C1778, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 4.02,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016.
	 7.	 ASTM C150, C595, C1157, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 4.01, ASTM International, 2016.
	 8.	 Obla, K.H., Lobo C.L., and Kim, H., "Tests and Criteria for Concrete Resistant to Chloride Ion Penetration," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 113, No. 5, pp. 621-631.
	 9.	 ACI 329.XT-XX (Approved 2017), "Minimum Cementitious Materials Content in Specifications," 4 pp.
	10.	 Obla, K.H., Hong, R., Lobo C.L., and Kim, H., "Should Minimum Cementitious Contents for Concrete be Specified," Transportation Research Record: Journal of the
Transportation Research Board, No. 2629, 2017, pp. 1-8.

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http://www.rmc-foundation.org/images/Phase%20I%20Report%20Final%20January%202006.pdf https://www.nrmca.org/aboutconcrete/sips/default.asp

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017

From the President’s Desk
Corporate Suite
Enviroscene
2017 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association Fleet Benchmarking and Costs Survey
The Root Causes of Poor Communication
Insulating Concrete Forms for Commercial Construction
Engineering: Specifying for Performance
View from Capitol Hill: State of Play of U.S. Infrastructure
2017 Service & Supply Buyers’ Guide
2017 Products & Services Suppliers Guide
Index of Advertisers
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - Intro
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - bellyband1
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - bellyband2
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - cover1
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - cover2
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 3
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 4
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 5
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 6
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 7
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 8
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - From the President’s Desk
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 10
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - Corporate Suite
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 12
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 13
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - Enviroscene
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 15
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 16
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 17
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 2017 National Ready Mixed Concrete Association Fleet Benchmarking and Costs Survey
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 19
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 20
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 21
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 22
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 23
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 24
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 25
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - The Root Causes of Poor Communication
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 27
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 28
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 29
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - Insulating Concrete Forms for Commercial Construction
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 31
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 32
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 33
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 34
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 35
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 36
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 37
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 38
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 39
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - Engineering: Specifying for Performance
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 41
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 42
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 43
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - View from Capitol Hill: State of Play of U.S. Infrastructure
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 45
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 46
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 2017 Service & Supply Buyers’ Guide
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 48
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 49
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 50
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 2017 Products & Services Suppliers Guide
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 52
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - Index of Advertisers
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - 54
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - cover3
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - cover4
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC1
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC2
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC3
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC4
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC5
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC6
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC7
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC8
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC9
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC10
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC11
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC12
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC13
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC14
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC15
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC16
Concrete inFocus - Fall 2017 - OC17
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