Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 18


SUSTAINABILITY

Potable Reuse
of Water:

A View from Arizona

t

BY SUSANNA EDEN, SHARON B. MEGDAL AND JEAN MCLAIN

water-the
introduction of highly treated wastewater
that meets or exceeds drinking water
standards into the potable water system-
is receiving increased attention as
growing population and finite resources
spur water managers to augment water
supplies. Downstream water users have
been drinking upstream wastewater for
millennia; for example, Arizona's Colorado
River water users, including customers of
the Central Arizona Project, receive treated
wastewater from Las Vegas, NV. But the
intentional reuse by one community of
its own wastewater is new, an approach
made possible by advanced treatment
technologies that are capable of producing
water purer than any found in nature.
In addition to the "de facto" reuse
of wastewater by downstream users
(described above), there are two types
of potable reuse: Indirect Potable Reuse
(IPR) and Direct Potable Reuse (DPR).
The difference between the two is the
use of an environmental buffer such as
an aquifer or reservoir in IPR and the
absence of such a buffer in DPR. For
reasons related to regulatory permitting
and public acceptance, IPR is now more
common in the United States than
DPR. Both forms of treatment employ
a multiple barrier approach in which
multiple advanced treatment technologies
are combined to reliably reduce a large

18

THIRD QUARTER 2016

suite of contaminants to vanishingly low
levels, providing resilience, redundancy
and robustness for a safe and sustainable
water supply.
The multiple treatment processes
often include microfiltration, reverse
osmosis and advanced oxidation with ultra
violet radiation. Other technologies, such
as membrane bioreactors and granular
activated carbon, can also be used in an
advanced treatment train. The specific
choice and order of processes depend on
local factors, including regulations, unique
site challenges, specific contaminants and
available technologies.
Decisions on treatment train can be
dependent on source water quality. While
reverse osmosis (RO) is typically used
in potable reuse of high-salinity water,
alternatives may be employed if salinity
is not a problem. RO is energy intensive
and expensive, but currently it is the only

''

treatment method available to remove
salts. Desalination through RO produces
brine, a waste stream that poses a
problem in places like land-locked Arizona,
where the current interpretation of aquifer
protection regulations prohibits deep-well
injection for brine disposal. Minimizing
brine and finding safe disposal methods is
an area of active research; one promising
avenue is use of the brine to water
salt-tolerant plants.
At this time, most recycled water in
Arizona goes to non-potable uses, such
as irrigation and industrial cooling. Cities
like Tucson and Flagstaff have invested in
distribution systems to deliver recycled
wastewater to non-potable users. In the
Phoenix area, approximately 22 percent
of the more than 300,000 acre-feet of
wastewater generated annually is delivered
to the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating
Station, 55 miles west of Phoenix, for use

''

The potable reuse of

THE INTENTIONAL REUSE BY ONE

COMMUNITY OF ITS OWN WASTEWATER IS
NEW, AN APPROACH MADE POSSIBLE BY

ADVANCED TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

THAT ARE CAPABLE OF PRODUCING WATER
PURER THAN ANY FOUND IN NATURE.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016

The Latest Drinking Water Innovations
Potable Reuse of Water: A View from Arizona
Getting the Public on Board with Your Potable Water Reuse Plan
Recapturing Revenue from Water Loss
Water Depletion and the Customer
Boardroom Courtesy
From the President
Finance: Audit Requirements
Technology: The New System that Uses Sound to Alleviate Water Shortage
Emergency Management: Creating a Drought Response Plan
A Day in the Life of a Circuit Rider
Regulatory Update
Throwing My Loop: An Old Familiar Tune
Index to Advertisers/ Advertisers.com
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - cover1
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - cover2
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 3
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 4
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 5
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 6
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 7
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 8
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 9
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 10
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - From the President
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - The Latest Drinking Water Innovations
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 13
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 14
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 15
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 16
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 17
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Potable Reuse of Water: A View from Arizona
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 19
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 20
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 21
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Getting the Public on Board with Your Potable Water Reuse Plan
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 23
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 24
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 25
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Recapturing Revenue from Water Loss
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 27
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 28
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 29
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 30
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Finance: Audit Requirements
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 32
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 33
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 34
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Technology: The New System that Uses Sound to Alleviate Water Shortage
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 36
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Emergency Management: Creating a Drought Response Plan
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 38
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 39
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - A Day in the Life of a Circuit Rider
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 41
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 42
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Water Depletion and the Customer
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 44
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Boardroom Courtesy
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 46
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 47
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Regulatory Update
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 49
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 50
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Throwing My Loop: An Old Familiar Tune
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 52
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 53
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - Index to Advertisers/ Advertisers.com
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 55
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 56
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 57
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - 58
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - cover3
Rural Water - Quarter 3, 2016 - cover4
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0418
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0318
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0218
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0118
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0417
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWA0016
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0317
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0217
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0117
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0416
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0316
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWA0015
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0216
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0116
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0415
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0315
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0215
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0115
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0414
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0314
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0214
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0114
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0413
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0313
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0213
http://www.nxtbook.com/naylor/NRWQ/NRWQ0113
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0412
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0312
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0212
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0411
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0311
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0211
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0111
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0410
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0310
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0210
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0110
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0409
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0309
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0209
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0109
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0408
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0308
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0208
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/NRWQ0108
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com