Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 32

but often this data is poorly correlated
with toxin concentrations and would
require samples being sent to a specialized laboratory.
In the event of a bloom and/or detection
of microcystins in the raw water, microcystins should be monitored prior to the distribution system at a minimum. Although
no one wants to see a bloom in their source
water, this would be a good opportunity to
collect full-scale treatment performance
data on the removal or destruction of total
microcystins as the water passes through
the treatment train, as well as to collect rawwater for bench-scale testing.

Future Opportunities
Figure 3. Reported range of drinking water treatment efficiencies
for intracellular and extracellular microcystins.

Additional treatment options can be
explored if a source water is known to have
persistent algae blooms. These can include
adsorption processes, such as granular
activated carbon (GAC) or powdered activated carbon (PAC), and pre-oxidation using
potassium permanganate. Conventional
treatment can be modified with PAC addition for the potential adsorption of more
than 75 per cent of dissolved microcystins
during the clarification process, with the
benefit of only being applied during seasonal periods of concern. PAC may also provide lower operation and maintenance costs
than GAC, as GAC can become exhausted
and required media replacement. Studies
suggest that wood-based carbons outperform other forms for the removal of dissolved microcystins due to the presence
of macropores and the relatively large size
of the microcystins molecule.
Pre-oxidation at the raw-water intake,
such as chlorination for the control of
invasive mussel species, is generally discouraged as it can rupture algae cells and
increased the dissolved concentration of
microcystins. However, in certain situations, pre-oxidation using approximately
1 mg/L (ppm) potassium permanganate can
be gentle enough to limit cell rupture and
provide greater than 50 per cent removal
of dissolved microcystins before the water
enters the plant depending on pH, organic
content and contact time. In these cases,
it is strongly recommended to couple
an adsorption process such as PAC with
pre-oxidation. Further considerations for

management of cyanotoxins include strategic placement of the intake pipe depth
and ensuring adequate shading and mixing
within open reservoirs. With source water
protection initiatives and optimized treatment in place, the final step in management
preparedness for HABs is the development
of an action plan.

Action Plan and Monitoring
A sound action plan should include procedures for monitoring, response actions
for during and after a bloom, as well as measures for issuing public notices. During a
bloom or upon detection of microcystins
in treated water, utilities should have a plan
for notifying the public to use alternative
sources (a Do Not Consume order) - especially for the making of infant formula and
for hospital uses.
Monitoring should be conducted from
May to November by visual inspection at
different times of day and water sampling
within the source (e.g. composite samples
at various depths and locations) as well as at
the raw water intake. Enhanced monitoring
should be performed in raw and treated
waters of utilities that have experienced
previous blooms and increased nutrient
loading or elevated turbidity. The presence
of microcystins can be measured using test
strips or field kits, while quantitative results
can be obtained from a laboratory using
ELISA or protein phosphatase inhibition
assays. Counts of cyanobacteria that produce cyanotoxins can be useful over time
to indicate the risk of bloom formation,

32 | O N T A R I O P I P E L I N E | SUMMER 2017

Of course, the best approach to protecting drinking water from cyanotoxins is to
prevent the formation of HABs all together.
Opportunities exist across Ontario to reduce
phosphorus inputs into the Great Lakes
by better managing and regulating pointand non-point sources, such as municipal
wastewater effluents and agricultural runoff, respectively. Despite these efforts,
population growth and widespread urban
and rural development along the shores
of the Great Lakes threatens to increase
phosphorus loading - especially to Lake
Ontario and Lake Erie.
The collaborative AQUA-HACKING
2017 Challenge by the de Gaspé Beubien
Foundation, IBM and the Water Institute at
the University of Waterloo is currently in full
swing with this year's theme being: United
for Lake Erie. More than 15 teams of selfproclaimed creative water- and computernerds have come together to address the
needs of Lake Erie including reducing plastic waste, increasing community involvement, stopping invasive species and, of
course, taking on the algae monster. Keep
a watchful eye on your source water and the
solutions to come out of this challenge to
protect our drinking water and improve the
overall water quality of our Great Lakes.

Bibliography

Health Canada. 2016. Guidelines for Canadian Drinking
Water Quality: Cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water
- Document for public consultation. Water, Air and
Climate Change Bureau, Healthy Environments and
Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa,
Ontario.
McLellan NL and Manderville RA. 2017. Toxic mechanisms
of microcystins in mammals. Toxicology Research. DOI:
10.1039/C7TX00043J.
SDWA (Safe Drinking Water Act). 2002. O. Reg. 457/16:
Last Amendment of the ODWQS (Ontario Drinking
Water Quality Standards). Government of Ontario.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017

From the Publications Chair
OWWA President’s Message
The OMWA Report
The OWWEA Report
From Our AWWA Director
Niagara Falls Success!
Conference Sponsors
2017 Fuller Award
2017 OWWA Awards
Silver Water Drop
Water Efficiency Awards
OMWA Awards
OMWA Board of Directors and Executive Committee, 2017
Committee Reports
Harmful Algae Blooms: Management of Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water Treatment
OWWEA Member Listing
OWWEA Member News
Index of Advertisers | Ad.com
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - Intro
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - bellyband1
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - bellyband2
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - cover1
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - cover2
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 3
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 4
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 5
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 6
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - From the Publications Chair
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 8
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - OWWA President’s Message
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - The OMWA Report
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - The OWWEA Report
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 12
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - From Our AWWA Director
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - Niagara Falls Success!
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 15
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 16
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - Conference Sponsors
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 2017 Fuller Award
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 2017 OWWA Awards
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 20
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 21
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - Silver Water Drop
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - Water Efficiency Awards
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - OMWA Awards
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 25
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - OMWA Board of Directors and Executive Committee, 2017
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - Committee Reports
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 28
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 29
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - Harmful Algae Blooms: Management of Cyanotoxins in Drinking Water Treatment
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 31
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 32
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - OWWEA Member Listing
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 34
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 35
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - 36
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - OWWEA Member News
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - Index of Advertisers | Ad.com
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - cover3
Ontario Pipeline - Summer 2017 - cover4
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