Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 41

degradable polymer with those of strengthbuilding thermoplastic polyester. Although
the modified lignin paralleled the behavior of
native lignin in wood by resisting rapid and
full conversion to carbon dioxide in a simulated composting environment, two thirds of
the film mass biodegraded within 12 weeks of
composting, with the remainder turning into
(humus-like) water-soluble solids and particles
<2 mm in size. The lignin derivatives suffered
from the release of trace amounts of malodorous volatiles containing reduced sulfur when
subjected to melt-blowing. The objectionable
odor was virtually unnoticeable in injectionmolded solid parts.
Use of kraft lignin as a contributing thermoplastic polymer component of melt-blown film
and injection-molded products from sustainable resources with environmental compatibility helps the kraft pulping process advance
toward a multi-purpose biorefining technology
with increased income potential.
LIGNIN CONVERSION
Accelerated aging of bio-oil from
lignin conversion in subcritical water
Huyen Nguyen Lyckeskog, Cecilia
Mattsson, Lars Olausson, SvenIngvar Andersson, Lennart
Vamling, and Hans Theliander

Solvent fractionation of the lignin-derived bio-oil
(DEE = diethyl ether; THF = tetrahydrofuran).

Accelerated aging of bio-oil derived from lignin was investigated at different aging temperatures (50°C and 80°C) and times (1 hour, 1 day,
1 week, and 1 month). The bio-oil used was
produced by the hydrothermal liquefaction of
kraft lignin, using phenol as the capping agent,
and base (potassium carbonate and potassium
hydroxide) and zirconium dioxide as the catalytic system in subcritical water. Researchers
measured elemental composition, molecular

weight, and chemical composition of the biooil to better understand the changes occurring
after subjection to an accelerated aging process.
The lignin-derived hydrothermal liquefaction bio-oil was quite stable compared with
biomass-pyrolysis bio-oil. The yield of the low
molecular weight fraction (light oil) decreased
from 64.1 percent to 58.1 percent and that of
tetrahydrofuran (THF) insoluble fraction
increased from 16.5 percent to 22.2 percent
after aging at 80°C for one month. Phenol and
phenolic dimers had high reactivity compared
with other aromatic substituents; these may
participate in the polymerization/condensation
reactions in the hydrothermal liquefaction biooil during accelerated aging.
Moreover, the high molecular weight fraction
(heavy oil) in the aged raw oil in the aromatic
region showed the structure of this fraction was
a combination of phenol-alkyl patterns, and the
guaiacol cross-peaks after aging indicated a new
polymer was formed during the aging process.
Pulp mill personnel can use this information when considering technology to extract
lignin from black liquor and process it further
into bio-oil.
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
Analysis of economically viable
lignin-based biorefinery strategies
implemented within a kraft pulp mill
Cédric Diffo Téguia, Rod
Albers, and Paul R. Stuart
Many pulp and paper companies are considering implementing a lignin-based biorefinery
to diversify their core business to new products
and improve their longer-term competitiveness.
In this study, various lignin biorefinery strategies were considered in a case study involving
lignin precipitation processes integrated within
an existing kraft mill and solvent pulping processes that would be implemented in parallel
to the existing mill processes using additional
hardwood. The analysis aimed to identify the
conditions under which various strategies
would represent suitable investments.
Operating constraints in the case study mill
limited lignin extraction to 85 metric tpd from
15 percent of the mill's black liquor, whereas
260 metric tpd lignin could be extracted by
solvent pulping 1500 metric tpd of hardwood.
The preferred strategies identified by the study
were lignin precipitation to phenolic resins
production, and solvent pulping to carbon
fiber production. The first product-process
strategy requires lower investment, provides
high returns (internal rate of return [IRR] of

Other research

appearing in TAPPI
Journal's February
2017 issue:
PAPERMAKING
Estimating limits of wet
pressing on paper machines
J. David McDonald and
Richard J. Kerekes
PROCESS CONTROL
Understanding conductivity
and soda loss
Michael T. Brown and
Peter W. Hart

Other research

appearing in
TAPPI Journal's
March 2017 issue:
LIGNIN CHARACTERIZATION
An easy and reliable method
for syringyl:guaiacyl
ratio measurement
Raquel Prado, Lisa Weigand,
Shikh M.S.N.S. Zahari,
Xabier Erdocia, Jason P. Hallet,
Jalel Labidi, and Tom Welton

39 percent to 43 percent), and is more easily
implemented in the near term.
Solvent pulping resulted in reasonable profitability (IRR of 18 percent to 25 percent), with
higher production volumes and a diversified
product portfolio, and was considered more
suitable as a longer-term strategy. Business
model robustness and long-term competitiveness can be better assured by combining both
strategies. It was shown that 1) government
support to offset capital cost, and 2) high derivatives market prices positively influence lignin
valorization strategies, which are sensitive to
technology and market maturity.
This study illustrates how a technical and
economic analysis could be used to identify
lignin-based biorefinery strategies that represent an attractive investment.
Paper360º MAY/JUNE 2017

41



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Paper360 - May/June 2017

Setpoint
Over the Wire
Leadership for a Changing Industry
An Ode to Small
The Graying of the Paper Industry
Suppliers Reach Out to Mill Leaders
Making a Difference: 2017 TAPPI/PIMA Awards
RISI’s Asian CEO of the Year
TAPPISAFE Offers Solid Benefits for Mills, Contractors
Reinventing Varkaus
Failure Isn’t Just an Option—It’s Unavoidable
Blower Technology Proves Its Worth
TAPPI Journal Summaries
Global Study: Most People Highly Value Paper and Print
The Changing World of OCC
TAPPI News
ASPI News
Index of Advertisers
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - intro
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - ebelly1
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - ebelly2
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - cover1
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - cover2
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 3
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 4
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 5
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - Setpoint
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 7
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - Over the Wire
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 9
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 10
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 11
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - An Ode to Small
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 13
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 14
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 15
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - The Graying of the Paper Industry
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 17
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - Suppliers Reach Out to Mill Leaders
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 19
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - Making a Difference: 2017 TAPPI/PIMA Awards
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 21
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 22
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 23
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 24
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 25
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 26
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 27
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - RISI’s Asian CEO of the Year
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 29
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 30
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 31
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - TAPPISAFE Offers Solid Benefits for Mills, Contractors
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 33
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - Reinventing Varkaus
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 35
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - Failure Isn’t Just an Option—It’s Unavoidable
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 37
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - Blower Technology Proves Its Worth
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 39
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - TAPPI Journal Summaries
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 41
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - Global Study: Most People Highly Value Paper and Print
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 43
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 44
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 45
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - The Changing World of OCC
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - 47
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - TAPPI News
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - ASPI News
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - Index of Advertisers
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - cover3
Paper360 - May/June 2017 - cover4
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