JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 27

have good characteristics in terms of low weight, strength, acoustic insulation and compartmentalisation, but offer limited stiffness and only moderate effectiveness in the transmission of horizontal forces within their plane. Another application is the strengthening of joints between timber elements. Composites with different microstructures can be used to reduce the failure risk induced by tensile stresses perpendicular to the fibre, and to increment the hysteretic-dissipation capabilities of the connections under cyclic loads. FRPs in the rehabilitation of metallic structures Like the previous document, document CNR-DT 202/2005, or “Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Existing Structures – Preliminary Study. Metallic structures”, constitutes a first step towards specific design guidelines. So far, only the English guidelines on the use of FRPs to reinforce metallic structures have been drawn up [10]. The results of this study will be useful in identifying any unsolved resistant to corrosion, if not completely unaffected, and extremely easy to handle. Their use in reinforcing metallic structures is not as developed as their concrete/masonry counterparts. Only some of the possibilities have been studied, including reinforcing riveted elements to counteract fatigue cracking, and reinforcing tensile elements or tensile sections of prestressed structural elements to reduce the strains in service conditions due to increased loads or to corrosion. The use of FRPs also yields better results in reinforcing older metallic constructions, because the mechanical properties of FRPs integrate well with those of cast iron (Figure 4). The high strain resistance of FRPs in the fibre direction and the use of pre-stressing techniques compensate for the modest strain resistance of cast iron. The study deals with: • basis of strengthening and special issues; • strengthening of tensile elements; • flexural strengthening; • debonding strength; • strengthening of fatigue-sensitive elements; • installation, monitoring and maintenance. The document also includes two appendices, including several international examples of FRP structural strengthening projects, and bibliographic references. Construction of Concrete Structures Reinforced with Fibre-Reinforced Polymer Bars”. The use of fibrereinforced polymer composites as a substitute for steel in concrete structural elements is a widespread practice in many countries [11-13]. Because FRP materials are not vulnerable to corrosion, they are particularly suitable in a number of situations. From a theoretical perspective, there are no conceptual differences in relation to the classical theory of steel-reinforced concrete elements. What does need to be taken into account is the different mechanical behaviour of FRP materials, whose constitutive law is fundamentally linear elastic up to failure. There are several reasons that make FRP bars preferable to conventional steel bars. As mentioned above, these innovative bars are not susceptible to corrosion, which makes them suitable for marine structures and structures exposed to harsh environments. Furthermore, glass FRP composites (GFRP) are nonconductive and therefore can be used effectively when stray currents are an issue, as in the case of rail transportation structures (railway or subway lines), either outdoor or in tunnels. Even bridge decks used as railway overpasses can be affected by the same phenomenon (Figure 5). This document focuses on structures reinforced with non-prestressed FRP bars. However, the possibility that elements of such structures have traditional steel reinforcement is also accounted for. Based on the experience and knowledge acquired, this Guide is restricted to the use of bars and grids made of fibrereinforced thermosetting resins with a fibre volume fraction greater than 50%. Considering the great variety of bars available on the market, including in terms of cross-section geometry, it is worth referring to an equivalent (or nominal) circular cross section, with both the diameter and area being defined properly. A procedure for evaluating the equivalent diameter and area is described Fig. 3: Strengthening works in Palazzo Nobili (Italy). problems, so that the scientific community can concentrate on them over the next few years. Reinforcing with FRPs gives better results in a number of situations. The use of FRPs resolves several of the problems associated with the use of traditional techniques and materials. The strengthto-weight ratio of FRPs is much higher than steel. FRPs are also much more Fig. 4: FRP strengthening of the Corona Bridge (England). Concrete structures reinforced with FRP bars The last document is CNR-DT 203/2006 or “Guide for the Design and No35 September 2007 / JEC Composites Magazine

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007

Edito
CONTENTS
NEWS WORLDWIDE
- Companies
- Agenda of events
- 2008 JEC Singapore
BUSINESS
- Market survey
- Niche markets
- Trends
- Human capital
FEATURE - MARINE
- Market
- Raw Materials
- Process
- Application
USERS’ PLATFORM
- Composites in the world
- Successful partners
- Applications
KNOW-HOW
- Warp knitting technology
- Testing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - CONTENTS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Companies
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - 2008 JEC Singapore
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 14
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Market survey
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Niche markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Trends
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Human capital
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Raw Materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 44
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Composites in the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Successful partners
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Warp knitting technology
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Testing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 65
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