# JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 41

`Process Fcomp = Ff + Ffm (1) Focus Vacuum-moulding technologies were probably developed to reduce the quantities of noxious elements escaping to the working environment during resin processing. In most cases, the infusion experiments produce a significant increase in mechanical properties compared to hand lay-up. Production Time Analysis shows a decrease in the total working hours. At this point, having the same load of the product of the tension for the surface of the resistant section, we obtain: Fcomp = σc Sc (2) Ff = σf Sf (3) Fm = σm Sm (4) where σi represents the tensions (appearing in the composite material, in the single fibre phase, and in the single matrix phase) and Si represents the resistant sections. σc Sc = σf Sf + σm Sm At this point, substituting (2), (3), (4) in (1), we obtain: (5) Now, applying Hooke’s Law, on the basis of which σ = E ε, we obtain: Ec εc Sc = Ef εf Sf + Em εm Sm (6) Assuming perfect adhesion between the fibres and the matrices, the deformation (ΔL/L0)f undergone by the generic fibre will be equal in terms of the deformation (ΔL/L0)m undergone by the matrix. Formula (6) can be simplified by eliminating the εi: Ec Sc = Ef Sf + Em Sm (7) If we divide the resulting formula by Sc, we obtain the following comparison expressing the calculation of the longitudinal modulus of a composite lamina as a function of the volumetric fractions (Vf) of fibres and matrices: Ec = Em Vf + EmVm (8) Widely documented experimental data show that for hand layup done correctly, with maximum Gc weight contents of the required glass reinforcement at 0.5, Vf is equal to 0.3. Using a vacuum-moulding process, a Gc of 0.65 can be obtained easily (Vf = 0.5). Based on all this, we know that we can deduce the following values from (8) and (9): Young’s Modulus (MPa) Glass fibre Polyester resin 70,000 3,500 UTS (MPa) 1,700 70 Mechanical properties of the constituents of a composite lamina. Fibre Resin Contibution Contibution Young’s modulus Hand lay-up Young’s modulus Infusion UTS Hand lay-up UTS Infusion 21,000MPa 35,000 MPa 510 MPa 850 MPa 2,450 MPa 1,750 MPa 49 MPa 35 MPa Total value 21,540 MPa 36,750 MPa 559 MPa 885 MPa This is called “Mix law” for composite materials. Accordingly, when adapting to the theoretical model used to calculate the longitudinal deformation, we can deduce the law to calculate the tensile strength of the lamina as follows: σ1 = σf Vf + σm Vm (9) Thus, (8) and (9) demonstrate that the mechanical properties of a composite lamina are closely connected to the volumetric fractions of fibres and matrices, i.e. to the fibre/resin ratio mentioned in the beginning of this paper. We would like to elaborate on the preceding statement, using a very simple calculation example on the specific case of a single lamina of a fibreglass laminate used to produce an ordinary pleasure boat. To simplify the calculation, we use a lamina made of unidirectional fibreglass impregnated with polyester resin. The mechanical properties of the constituents are expressed in the following table. Theoretical mechanical properties of a lamina, comparing infusion with hand lay-up. These few simple considerations should be sufficient to justify the application of vacuum-moulding technologies, if only to increase the specific strength of the lamina. Bibliography [1] Crivelli Visconti I., Materiali Compositi. Tecnologia e progettazione, Tamburini, Milan 1985. [2] Caprino G., Teti R., Primer on Polymeric Foam Core Sandwich Structures, Liguori, Naples 1985. [3] Durante, Langella, Covito, Ussorio, Properties of laminates manufactured by infusion process, Advancing with Composites, Milan, 2003. [4] G. Coccia, Analysis of technical/production parameters of infusion manufacturing processes for medium sized hulls, Via Mare-By Sea, Ott/Dic 2006. [5] Composite Materials Workbook, AFML-TR-78-33, March 1978. More information: www.piast.com JEC Composites Magazine / No35 September 2007`
http://www.piast.com

# JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007

## Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007

Edito
CONTENTS
NEWS WORLDWIDE
- Companies
- Agenda of events
- 2008 JEC Singapore
- Market survey
- Niche markets
- Trends
- Human capital
FEATURE - MARINE
- Market
- Raw Materials
- Process
- Application
USERS’ PLATFORM
- Composites in the world
- Successful partners
- Applications
KNOW-HOW
- Warp knitting technology
- Testing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - CONTENTS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Companies
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - 2008 JEC Singapore
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 14
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Market survey
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Niche markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Trends
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Human capital
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Market
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Raw Materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Application
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Composites in the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Successful partners
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Warp knitting technology
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - - Testing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #35 - September 2007 - 66
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