JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 61

and a vacuum bag, the foam must provide sufficient compression resistance so as to not collapse under pressure up to one atmosphere. The most cost-effective types of foams meeting this requirement include polyurethane (PU) and extruded polystyrene (XPS). More fire-resistant foams meeting the same requirements include polyisocyanurate (PIR) and phenolic (Ph) foams. Each of these rigid foams is produced in large quantities, principally for thermal insulation. The rigid foams identified above can each provide sufficient resistance to vacuum pressure for foam densities as low as 32 kg/m3 (2pcf). Due to the poor mechanical properties of these low-density foams, panel structures are typically produced with studs to provide the required shear-web properties, which means the foam is incorporated into the panel for its thermal properties alone. When fibres are incorporated into the foam, and infused with resin to provide the properties of FRPs, the fibre architecture is designed to eliminate the use of studs and perimeter frames. Not only can the fibre-reinforced foam structure actually have better thermal properties by eliminating the thermal shunt associated with studs, but the global structure may be stronger, lighter, and even more cost-effective than the original panel. This resulting construction with fibre-reinforced cores is well adapted for a wide variety of cost-competitive applications. place fibre tows as discreet pins or struts that join opposing surfaces. These may also be inserted in rows with positive and negative angles to create a fibre architecture that is similar to truss designs. Angles of 45 degrees will optimize shear capacity for flexural stiffness, which is most often the preferred choice. Increasing angles may provide an increase in compression with some loss of shear, which may be appropriate for severelyloaded objects of short spans. Products made with orthogonal (90 degree) orientations suffer from shear performance properties that are hardly better than the base foam, and may also suffer damage to the skin laminates when heavily loaded in compression. Figure 1 shows a section of Nida-Core NidaFusion™ STO with foam removed, identifying angle and step length process variables. Using soft compliant closed-cell foams When moulding with a fixed-cavity tool, such as in vacuumassisted Light RTM, a soft compliant closed-cell foam may be incorporated. In this case, the tool may have vacuum applied without losing cross section. Therefore, with the LRTM process, rigid foam is no longer a prerequisite for vacuum infusion. However, it would otherwise be possible for resin injection to cause the collapse of a low-density foam, which identifies the enabling technology of LRTM when the injection pressure is controlled by automated monitoring of the cavity pressure. Using a soft, compliant closed-cell foam not only means that the core material can easily conform to shaped parts, but it can also adapt to variable cross sections that include tapered edges and style lines. The most cost-effective closed-cell foam is made of polyethylene (PE), and is produced in large quantities for use in packaging. Other thermoplastic foams include polypropylene (PP) as well as specialty blends and cross-linked foams that can provide increased temperature resistance properties while still being appropriate for moulding complex shapes. Methods for incorporating dry fibres in closed-cell foams have used various textile processes, including placing fabrics between adjacent pieces of foam, or filament winding dry fibres wrapped helicoidally around strips of foam, either of which will create webs. The fibres within these webs are oriented at positive and negative angles to provide shear strength. Alternatively, fibre insertion techniques such as stitching or tufting can be used to Fig. 1: Section of Nida-Core NidaFusion™ STO. Fig. 2: Nida-Core NidaFusion™ STF applied to LRTM counter-mould. It should be noted that vacuum infusion is often cited for the benefit of consolidating fibre volumes to achieve very high fibreto-resin ratios. However, these compaction forces act only in plane, and materials introduced as webs do not provide this same benefit. Care must be taken to maintain the tight packing of adjacent pieces to assure that efficient web structures are created. Fibre insertion methods provide direct control of each fabrication variable including the dimension of the individual No49 June 2009 / jec composites magazine 61

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009

Cover
Index
Contents
- NEWS WORLDWIDE -
CompaniesMergers and acquisitions /Opening/Development /Partnership
3B: a high-quality fibreglass supplier
DK Composites: a player that has made a name for itself
Agenda of events
Equipment Innovative robotic solutions for fibre placement
- BUSINESS -
Market survey Indian distributors of raw materials for composites
Trends Subcontracting in aviation: a rapidly changing sector
Niche market Composites conform to creation
Human capital NCC: a global source for commercialization, manufacturing acceleration and incubation
- FEATURE -
Market 2009-2013: no slow-down in global wind developments
Design Composite wind turbine blade design: leveraging aerospace advances
Reinforcement New composite hybrid reinforcements for the wind turbine industry
Resins Advanced epoxy technology for wind turbine blades
Foam Breakthrough in structural PET foam core materials
Adhesive Turbine blade bonding
Production Automated blade production for wind energy plants
UT scans to ensure blade quality
Application An innovative composite wind turbine: for homeowners and professionals
- USERS’ PLATFORM -
Composites in the world - An astonishing chair
 - “Light car - Open Source”
The Greenbirdproject: 203 km/h just using wind
Lightweight hand-launched glider
Successful partners Innovative architectural cladding
Application GRP pipe system for Cancéropôle stormwater network
Composite system has capital solution for park odours
Composite drives team in first zero-emission race
- KNOW-HOW -
Materials Fibre-reinforced cores
Release agents Mould release system for the marine industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 3
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - CompaniesMergers and acquisitions /Opening/Development /Partnership
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Pub1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Pub2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 3B: a high-quality fibreglass supplier
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - DK Composites: a player that has made a name for itself
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Equipment Innovative robotic solutions for fibre placement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - - BUSINESS -
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Market survey Indian distributors of raw materials for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Trends Subcontracting in aviation: a rapidly changing sector
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Niche market Composites conform to creation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Human capital NCC: a global source for commercialization, manufacturing acceleration and incubation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - - FEATURE -
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Market 2009-2013: no slow-down in global wind developments
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Design Composite wind turbine blade design: leveraging aerospace advances
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Reinforcement New composite hybrid reinforcements for the wind turbine industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Resins Advanced epoxy technology for wind turbine blades
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Foam Breakthrough in structural PET foam core materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Adhesive Turbine blade bonding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Production Automated blade production for wind energy plants
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - UT scans to ensure blade quality
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Application An innovative composite wind turbine: for homeowners and professionals
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - - USERS’ PLATFORM -
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 -  - “Light car - Open Source”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Lightweight hand-launched glider
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Successful partners Innovative architectural cladding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Application GRP pipe system for Cancéropôle stormwater network
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Composite system has capital solution for park odours
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Composite drives team in first zero-emission race
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - - KNOW-HOW -
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Materials Fibre-reinforced cores
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Release agents Mould release system for the marine industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 68
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