JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 64

KNOW-HOW Release agents …/… Mould release system for the marine industry final mechanical properties of the part. The reactivity of the resin is directly proportional to the number of double bonds predisposed to react with the free radicals. The number of double bonds in the resin molecular chain dictates the degree of cross-linking of the cured polymer. The final physical properties of the cured polymer (heat distortion temperature, hardness, elongation at break, etc.) are affected by the achieved degree of cross-linking. As the curing stage begins, the molecular chains start to bundle together and the whole matrix gradually shrinks. The shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resins is volumetric and can be very significant (up to 10%). This effect is a major problem because it may cause unexpected defects in the moulded composite parts such as warpage, distortion, rippled surface, etc. The more abrupt the shrinkage is, the greater the chance of severe warpage of the part. The effect of resin shrinkage on composite deformation is very complex because of the anisotropic properties induced by the fibres. The effects of resin shrinkage on gelcoats are also very important and can lead to a severe pre-release of the coating, adversely affecting the aesthetics of the part. The main chemical factors involved are: - High-reactivity resin: a high-reactivity resin will produce a very fast reaction that may lead to severe pre-release. - High-reactivity peroxide: a high-reactivity peroxide may also lead to increased shrinkage resulting in pre-release. - Abrupt temperature changes: the surrounding temperature affects resin shrinkage. Pre-release is normally more common in summer than in winter. - Pigments: inorganic pigments such as titanium dioxide tend to offset resin shrinkage due to a high filler content; however, organic pigments do not contain fillers and cannot counteract matrix shrinkage. - Excessive quantity of promoter (cobalt octoate): excess promoter also leads to premature part release. Physical factors include: - Excessive resin thickness: this effect is more acute with gelcoats and produces a differential shrinkage that may result in severe pre-release. Thick sections always cure faster than thin ones. It is likely to take place in corners where a higher quantity of gelcoat is deposited. - Mould geometry: concave moulds (female moulds) are more prone to pre-release than convex moulds (male moulds). Mould size also matters as shrinkage is more noticeable when working with mould structures of over 8 m long. Fig. 3: Pre-release effect in a concave surface. Analysis of pre-release phenomena The pre-release of unsaturated polyester resins is a complex phenomenon that is not yet well understood. There are many chemical and physical factors that may trigger this process. To simplify the description of this phenomenon, we can say that “pre-release is the result of a higher than usual chemical reaction speed”. In other words, the chemical reaction between the resin and the monomer progresses at a much faster pace than it should. The consequences of such a fast reaction are serious as the polymer shrinks abruptly and the part self-releases without replicating the mould surface. In most cases, the part is rejected without any possibility for repair. This excessive reaction speed can be produced by many factors, some being chemical and others being physical. Fig. 4: Shrinking forces on mould geometry. Ensuring good release When attempting to achieve successful moulding results, two aspects need to be considered: - The material where the mould release system is to be applied, the tool. - The material to be applied over the mould release system, the resin. Three basic steps must be followed to ensure successful release: cleaning, sealing, and proper application of the release agent. Cleaning the mould A clean tool is important to ensure a good-quality moulded part. 64 jec composites magazine / No49 June 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009

Cover
Index
Contents
- NEWS WORLDWIDE -
CompaniesMergers and acquisitions /Opening/Development /Partnership
3B: a high-quality fibreglass supplier
DK Composites: a player that has made a name for itself
Agenda of events
Equipment Innovative robotic solutions for fibre placement
- BUSINESS -
Market survey Indian distributors of raw materials for composites
Trends Subcontracting in aviation: a rapidly changing sector
Niche market Composites conform to creation
Human capital NCC: a global source for commercialization, manufacturing acceleration and incubation
- FEATURE -
Market 2009-2013: no slow-down in global wind developments
Design Composite wind turbine blade design: leveraging aerospace advances
Reinforcement New composite hybrid reinforcements for the wind turbine industry
Resins Advanced epoxy technology for wind turbine blades
Foam Breakthrough in structural PET foam core materials
Adhesive Turbine blade bonding
Production Automated blade production for wind energy plants
UT scans to ensure blade quality
Application An innovative composite wind turbine: for homeowners and professionals
- USERS’ PLATFORM -
Composites in the world - An astonishing chair
 - “Light car - Open Source”
The Greenbirdproject: 203 km/h just using wind
Lightweight hand-launched glider
Successful partners Innovative architectural cladding
Application GRP pipe system for Cancéropôle stormwater network
Composite system has capital solution for park odours
Composite drives team in first zero-emission race
- KNOW-HOW -
Materials Fibre-reinforced cores
Release agents Mould release system for the marine industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 3
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - CompaniesMergers and acquisitions /Opening/Development /Partnership
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Pub1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Pub2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 3B: a high-quality fibreglass supplier
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - DK Composites: a player that has made a name for itself
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Equipment Innovative robotic solutions for fibre placement
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - - BUSINESS -
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Market survey Indian distributors of raw materials for composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Trends Subcontracting in aviation: a rapidly changing sector
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Niche market Composites conform to creation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Human capital NCC: a global source for commercialization, manufacturing acceleration and incubation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - - FEATURE -
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Market 2009-2013: no slow-down in global wind developments
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Design Composite wind turbine blade design: leveraging aerospace advances
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Reinforcement New composite hybrid reinforcements for the wind turbine industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Resins Advanced epoxy technology for wind turbine blades
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Foam Breakthrough in structural PET foam core materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Adhesive Turbine blade bonding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Production Automated blade production for wind energy plants
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - UT scans to ensure blade quality
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Application An innovative composite wind turbine: for homeowners and professionals
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - - USERS’ PLATFORM -
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 -  - “Light car - Open Source”
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Lightweight hand-launched glider
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Successful partners Innovative architectural cladding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Application GRP pipe system for Cancéropôle stormwater network
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Composite system has capital solution for park odours
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Composite drives team in first zero-emission race
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - - KNOW-HOW -
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Materials Fibre-reinforced cores
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - Release agents Mould release system for the marine industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #49 - June 2009 - 68
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