JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 37

Recycling Recycling composite materials reinforced with plant fibres The notion of life cycle for a product or a technical component is a key aspect of any eco-design approach. With this in mind, recyclability needs to be taken into account from as early as the design stage, and it confers a definite advantage on the end product. CHRISTOPHE BALEY, PROFESSOR, ALAIN BOURMAUD, RESEARCH ENGINEER, UNIVERSITÉ DE BRETAGNE SUD, LABORATOIRE D’INGÉNIERIE DES MATÉRIAUX DE BRETAGNE (LIMATB) euse by means of a recycling step is possible, within certain limits, for thermoplastic-matrix composites. Generally, this recycling consists in the crushing of the parts followed by a mixing phase in order to blend in these recycled materials with virgin material. This mix is then processed under high pressure and temperature by means of conventional injection or extrusion technologies. With each new recycling, the properties of the matrix and of the fibres, and those of the fibre-matrix interface, change [1-3]. This is particularly true for the aspect ratio of the fibres. This parameter, which represents the ratio between the length and the diameter of the reinforcement fibres, plays a key role in the reinforcement mechanisms of a composite, since it conditions the load transfer between fibre and matrix. As part of our recent research works, we have been focusing on the recycling of thermoplastic-matrix composite materials made of polypropylene (PP) and polylactic acid (PLA) resins reinforced with plant fibres such as flax, sisal and hemp [1-3]. These materials were processed via injection then crushed and ground using an industrial cutting mill. The size of the pellets obtained after milling was between 2 and 4 mm. R Fig.1: Evolution of tensile modulus with number of cycles Results Initially, recyclability studies were carried out on polypropylene reinforced with 30% hemp fibres by weight as manufactured by AFT Plasturgie (France) [1]. Six successive injection and milling cycles were carried out in order to test the recyclability of this material. To assess the recycling behaviour of the composite, we carried out the same operations on the virgin polypropylene matrix and on polypropylene with 30% by weight of glass fibre reinforcement. Figures 1 and 2 present the evolution of tensile modulus and tensile strength as a function of the number of recycling cycles. Fig. 2: Evolution of max. tensile strength with number of cycles No55 February - March 2010 / jec composites magazine

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010

Cover
Contents
NEWS WORLDWIDE
Companies - AGY is expanding into Asia Pacific
 - Pipeco: successful shift from steel to composites
Agenda of events
 - ContiTech and BASF reach new milestone in lightweight construction
 - BMW M-Series carbon-fibre roof
Innovations - NRC and Magna to develop ultra-light materials for next-generation vehicles
BUSINESS
Market survey -  The European composites market 2008/2009
Trends - Automobile interior parts go greener
Niche market - Concept Blade - The leading edge of acoustic technology
Human capital - RHS manager
FEATURE
Outlook - Natural fibres for the 3rd millennium
 - The outlook for flax and hemp fibres in composites .
Properties - The biomaterial for green composites
Weaving -  High-performance biocomposites: novel aligned natural fibre reinforcements
Compounds - Bioplastic-based compounds
 - Combining polypropylene and natural fibre in automotive applications
Application - Complete houses made of wood-plastic composites
Recycling - Recycling composite materials reinforced with plant fibres
USERS’ PLATFORM
Composites in the world - New cordless hammer drill
 - Life cycle analysis: eco-friendly coffin
 - Carbon 451 lamp
 - Premium pocket binoculars
Successful partners - Earthquake-proof FRPM pipes
Application - PlanetSolar: around the world on the world’s largest solar-powered boat
KNOW-HOW
Cutting tools - Are lasers finally competing with rotary die cutters
Design & Manufacturing - Advanced composite racing yacht construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 3
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - NEWS WORLDWIDE
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Companies - AGY is expanding into Asia Pacific
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 -  - Pipeco: successful shift from steel to composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Innovations - NRC and Magna to develop ultra-light materials for next-generation vehicles
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - BUSINESS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Market survey -  The European composites market 2008/2009
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Trends - Automobile interior parts go greener
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Niche market - Concept Blade - The leading edge of acoustic technology
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Human capital - RHS manager
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - FEATURE
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Outlook - Natural fibres for the 3rd millennium
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 -  - The outlook for flax and hemp fibres in composites .
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Properties - The biomaterial for green composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Weaving -  High-performance biocomposites: novel aligned natural fibre reinforcements
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Compounds - Bioplastic-based compounds
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 -  - Combining polypropylene and natural fibre in automotive applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Application - Complete houses made of wood-plastic composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Recycling - Recycling composite materials reinforced with plant fibres
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - USERS’ PLATFORM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 -  - Life cycle analysis: eco-friendly coffin
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 -  - Premium pocket binoculars
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Successful partners - Earthquake-proof FRPM pipes
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Application - PlanetSolar: around the world on the world’s largest solar-powered boat
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - KNOW-HOW
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Cutting tools - Are lasers finally competing with rotary die cutters
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Design & Manufacturing - Advanced composite racing yacht construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 55
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JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 60
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