JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 56

KNOW-HOW Design & Manufacturing g…/… Advanced composite racing yacht construction oven temperature should stabilise, other parts will lag behind and still require the oven to provide the same amount of energy. As this does not happen, these areas fall short of the dwell temperature. When they reach the required temperature level, the dwell time is over and the ramp starts climbing again to the final cure temperature. It is easy to understand that, without enough time for the resin to flow and compact, there will be areas of cured laminate with significant differences in the void content and the resin/fibre volume ratio. small and large ovens or even infrared radiation applied directly on the surface of the foam. The most effective method depends on the mould shape and size. Trimarine has used this technique very successfully to infuse 1015 metre hulls in one shot, where all the foam panels are preformed and splice-bonded to form a complete core shell punched at 30-50 mm centres with 1.5 mm perforations. In a production environment, it is relatively economical to have all the core shells thermoformed separately so they can be precision-loaded into the laminating or infusion mould in minutes rather than hours. Cutting and curing PVC foam When cutting and sanding PVC foam panels to the desired moulding shapes, the freshly-exposed cells may contain traces of the active chemicals used in the foam manufacturing process. It is advisable to post-cure the shaped panels at elevated temperature for at least 24-36 hours to neutralise any possibility of degassing or chemical inhibition when used in conjunction with prepregs or when subjecting the material to a further postcuring process. Precut core panel kits A common practice in series production, the use of precut core panel kits is not a practical proposition for one-off construction for obvious reasons. A significant economy in production time can be gained by using either in-house or out sourced core panel kits. Large Oven (L:30m x W:10m x H:5.5m) with two vacuum bagged semihulls under cure Important process issues Core thermoforming In the pursuit of higher-performance composite structures, any parasitic composite weight that does not contribute directly to the performance should be eliminated. One such element is the amount of matrix resin absorbed by the core material due to cutting, grooving or perforating operations which are required to make the panels conform to the moulded shape. Contoured or slit foam panels do make it easier to follow the contours of compound shape mouldings but they require a very significant amount of resin to fill in all the gaps. On the contrary, cold bending flat panels under vacuum is difficult (especially when using a thickness above 25 mm) and imprecise, yielding mixed results or requiring several vacuum operations which can trigger a pre-release of the thin sandwich skins. Enter core thermoforming. This process is not new but has become very popular in the last few years as it reduces the need for cutting and slitting the foam panels. By heating the foam sheets to the required temperature, it is possible to quickly pre-shape the panels which are then forced by vacuum into the mould and reheated to the relaxation temperature of the foam. Heating methods vary from electrically-heated flexible mats to Honeycomb cores and moisture Paper honeycomb cores, especially Nomex®, are hygroscopic materials and absorb a significant amount of water from the atmosphere due to their large cell wetted surface. This moisture is trapped in the cell skins and, when heated, is released as vapour. This phenomenon ultimately can result in skin blowouts as the prepreg skins cure and become impervious to the water vapour that is trying to escape. Drying out the Nomex® panels is an obvious answer but unfortunately, due to their large wetted surface, the honeycomb panels pick up and saturate with ambient moisture in the first 24 hours of re-exposure to the working environment. Working in a controlled dry environment helps reduce the amount of moisture absorption but does not eliminate the problem satisfactorily. Although the use of woven or multiaxial fabrics as skin materials greatly improves this vapour elimination process, the use of unidirectional reinforcements as used in most of the advanced racing hulls today does pose a critical processing problem. The graph shows that moisture pick-up is significant, even in a relatively dry environment. Various methods recommended by prepreg manufacturers have been used in an attempt to resolve this issue. The techniques employed today in hulls using core thicknesses jec composites magazine / No55 February - March 2010

JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010

Cover
Contents
NEWS WORLDWIDE
Companies - AGY is expanding into Asia Pacific
 - Pipeco: successful shift from steel to composites
Agenda of events
 - ContiTech and BASF reach new milestone in lightweight construction
 - BMW M-Series carbon-fibre roof
Innovations - NRC and Magna to develop ultra-light materials for next-generation vehicles
BUSINESS
Market survey -  The European composites market 2008/2009
Trends - Automobile interior parts go greener
Niche market - Concept Blade - The leading edge of acoustic technology
Human capital - RHS manager
FEATURE
Outlook - Natural fibres for the 3rd millennium
 - The outlook for flax and hemp fibres in composites .
Properties - The biomaterial for green composites
Weaving -  High-performance biocomposites: novel aligned natural fibre reinforcements
Compounds - Bioplastic-based compounds
 - Combining polypropylene and natural fibre in automotive applications
Application - Complete houses made of wood-plastic composites
Recycling - Recycling composite materials reinforced with plant fibres
USERS’ PLATFORM
Composites in the world - New cordless hammer drill
 - Life cycle analysis: eco-friendly coffin
 - Carbon 451 lamp
 - Premium pocket binoculars
Successful partners - Earthquake-proof FRPM pipes
Application - PlanetSolar: around the world on the world’s largest solar-powered boat
KNOW-HOW
Cutting tools - Are lasers finally competing with rotary die cutters
Design & Manufacturing - Advanced composite racing yacht construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 3
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - NEWS WORLDWIDE
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Companies - AGY is expanding into Asia Pacific
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 -  - Pipeco: successful shift from steel to composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Innovations - NRC and Magna to develop ultra-light materials for next-generation vehicles
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - BUSINESS
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Market survey -  The European composites market 2008/2009
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Trends - Automobile interior parts go greener
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Niche market - Concept Blade - The leading edge of acoustic technology
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Human capital - RHS manager
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - FEATURE
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Outlook - Natural fibres for the 3rd millennium
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 -  - The outlook for flax and hemp fibres in composites .
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Properties - The biomaterial for green composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Weaving -  High-performance biocomposites: novel aligned natural fibre reinforcements
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Compounds - Bioplastic-based compounds
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 -  - Combining polypropylene and natural fibre in automotive applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Application - Complete houses made of wood-plastic composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Recycling - Recycling composite materials reinforced with plant fibres
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - USERS’ PLATFORM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 -  - Life cycle analysis: eco-friendly coffin
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 -  - Premium pocket binoculars
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Successful partners - Earthquake-proof FRPM pipes
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Application - PlanetSolar: around the world on the world’s largest solar-powered boat
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - KNOW-HOW
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Cutting tools - Are lasers finally competing with rotary die cutters
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - Design & Manufacturing - Advanced composite racing yacht construction
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #55 - February/March 2010 - 54
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