JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 17

BUSINESS
Niche Market

Bio-based polymers: a revolutionary change
Limited fossil resources, their growing cost, public concern about climate change, and important breakthroughs in white biotechnology and related polymer technologies are all significant drivers to move from fossil-based polymers to bio-based polymers in all polymer categories and markets. Major global investments make it happen.
Most bio-based polymers are durable and the global volume of bio-based thermosets is currently larger than that of bio-based thermoplastics. The initial market interest in bio-based plastics came from producers of onetime-use applications or of applications that generate a lot of plastic waste.
Tab. 1: Biocompostable versus bio-based polymers

JAN RAVENSTIJN, FORMER GLOBAL R&D DIRECTOR VISITING PROFESSOR BIOPOLYMERS

he use of synthetic polymers is forecast to grow from 250,000 kt/ year in 2000 to more than 1,000,000 kt/ year by the year 2100 due to prosperity and world population growth. In such a case, we would need 25% of the current oil production to make plastics alone by the end of this century.

T

Biodegradability was considered to be the important property here seeing that we waste 3.7 billion plastic cups, 350 billion plastic bottles and 3,750 billion plastic bags every year. Still, focus is shifting slowly but surely from biodegradable to bio-based materials in an attempt to counter climate change. Biodegradation is a useful property in some applications, but

Compostable

Not Compostable
- High-density polyethylene (Braskem) - Linear low-density polyethylene (Dow 2011) - Natural oil polyols (NOP) - Polythioalkanoates (PTA) - Polyamides (PA-11, UNI-REZ®, PA-10,10) - Co-polyamides (Platamid®) - Polyvinylchloride (Solvay 2010) - Stereo-complex PLA - Aliphatic polycarbonates (Mitsubishi 2010 a.o.) - Polytrimethylterephthalate (PTT) - Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) - Polyurethanes based on NOPs - Thermoplastic elastomers based on NOPs - Polyamides (PPA, PA-4,10 & PA-6,10) - Polyetherblockamide (TPE Pebax® Rnew) - Some unsaturated polyesters for composites - Some epoxies

It is a misunderstanding to think that biobased polymers are biodegradable since this is true for only a select few (Table 1).

Fossil-based

Economic (oil cost), ecologic (climate change) and technology (white biotechnology and bio-based polymers) developments are driving the change from fossil-based to bio-based polymers. The bio-route is reportedly cheaper than the fossil-route at oil prices above $50/ barrel. As the new technology develops, this cut-off point will further decrease while the performance spectrum expands rapidly. The cost-to-performance balance of many of these materials is already quite competitive. In order to achieve economic sustainability for other materials, efforts are focusing on economies of scale and on white biotechnology (Wave II feedstock moving away from competition with the food chain, process technology, metabolic engineering).

Partly bio-based

Bio-based

- Poly l-Lactic acid (PLLA) - Starch-based polymers (TPS) - Polyhydroxyalkanoates (most PHAs)

- Polybutylenesuccinate (some Chinese PBS) - Polyhydroxyalkanoates (some PHAs)

- Aliphatic/aromatic polyester like PBAT - Polybutylenesuccinate (PBS) & related polymers - Polyesteramides - Polyvinylesters - Polyvinylalcohol

Most polymers known on the market today, like: - Polyolefins (PE, PP PVC) , - Styrene polymers (GPPS, HIPS, ABS, TIPS) - Polyesters (PBT, PET) - Most epoxies - Most unsaturated polyester resins (UPR) - Phenol resins - Polyamides - Polycarbonate

No59 August - September 2010 / jec composites magazine

17



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010

Cover
Contents
NEWS WORLDWIDE
Goodrich Corporation acquires Crompton Technology Group
Reichhold expands manufacturing capacity in Turkey
LAP wins order from Airbus
Toho Tenax Europe to supply carbon fibre for Bombardier Cseries
Glass Fibre - A global competition for breakthrough composite applications
Agenda of events
Innovation - Phenolic prepreg products for interior applications
BUSINESS
Market survey: China Yuan Long FRP broadens its range of skills beyond pultrusion
Shanghai Tung Hsing Technology: steady growth through diversified markets
Niche Market Bio-based polymers: a revolutionnary change
Trends Kenaf, a fibre for the future: the Harusmas experience
Mechanical properties of naturalfibre-reinforced composites
FEATURE
Design - Wave impact resistance of racing yacht composites
Infusion - Regatta racing at the highest level
Adhesive - Flame-retardant adhesive for power packs in marine applications
Control - Validation of marine structures - Testing appraoches
Resin - New styrene-free resin: better for Catamaran Cruisers and the environment
VOC - Presatured wipes reduce VOC emissions
High performance - 48 days, 7 hours, 44 minutes around the world
USERS' PLATFORM
Composites in the world
Ying Yang table
The most luxurious golf car ever made
New carbon fibre band watch
Successful partners - A prefabricated FRP bridge for the oil and gas industry
Low-cost structural thermoplastic composites for transport
Making modular bus body shells from composite materials
Tougher fire-rated bus parts thanks to intumescent topcoat
KNOW-HOW
Bonding - Composite bonders - meeting the requirements of modern engineering
Manufacturing - ESTRIM - a fast-demoulding injection technology for epoxy composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 3
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Toho Tenax Europe to supply carbon fibre for Bombardier Cseries
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Glass Fibre - A global competition for breakthrough composite applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Innovation - Phenolic prepreg products for interior applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Market survey: China Yuan Long FRP broadens its range of skills beyond pultrusion
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Shanghai Tung Hsing Technology: steady growth through diversified markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Niche Market Bio-based polymers: a revolutionnary change
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Trends Kenaf, a fibre for the future: the Harusmas experience
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Mechanical properties of naturalfibre-reinforced composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Design - Wave impact resistance of racing yacht composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Infusion - Regatta racing at the highest level
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Adhesive - Flame-retardant adhesive for power packs in marine applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Control - Validation of marine structures - Testing appraoches
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Resin - New styrene-free resin: better for Catamaran Cruisers and the environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - VOC - Presatured wipes reduce VOC emissions
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - High performance - 48 days, 7 hours, 44 minutes around the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - New carbon fibre band watch
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Successful partners - A prefabricated FRP bridge for the oil and gas industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Low-cost structural thermoplastic composites for transport
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Making modular bus body shells from composite materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Tougher fire-rated bus parts thanks to intumescent topcoat
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Bonding - Composite bonders - meeting the requirements of modern engineering
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Manufacturing - ESTRIM - a fast-demoulding injection technology for epoxy composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 68
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