JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 22

BUSINESS
Trends
g…/… Kenaf, a fibre for the future: the Harusmas experience

Composite applications
Processing technology has made great strides since the early years. Kenaf has already been used in commercial applications such as composite boards, automotive panels, insulation mats and geotextiles. Major global corporations such as Toyota Motor Corporation and Panasonic Electric Works have taken the lead in the global kenaf industry. Toyota has developed kenaf fibres for automotive interior applications, and Panasonic, a structural wall board to replace timber-based plywood. The kenaf board is far stronger and lighter than plywood.

Fig. 4: Kenaf polymer composite decking

An original kenaf project
Harusmas Agro Sdn. Bhd. (HASB) based in Sabah, Malaysia initiated a kenaf project back in the year 2000. First, twelve different kenaf varieties were imported from around the world to conduct cultivation trials on HASB’s farm land. Throughout the trials, the crop showed good adaptability to local conditions. The project was then presented to the Sabah state government. Under the leadership of the Chief Minister YAB Datuk Musa Aman the state government is

focussing on diversifying its agriculture industry and the development of the green economy. The project was favourably received when a 2,000-hectare piece of land was allocated to HASB for what was called the “Kenaf Commercial Pilot Project”. Also high on the agenda was the introduction of kenaf to the rural farming community as a means to raise their income. This was done through local demonstrations in rural areas. A strategic plan is being outlined to ensure efficiency and productivity on the part of the rural farmers. HASB has carried out extensive research and development and trials. Cultivation and harvesting trials started in 2000, followed by trials on high-protein kenaf forage for dairy cattle. The trials showed that 6-8 week-old kenaf contains approximately 18% crude protein (Fig. 3). The next step involved trials on kenaf biocomposites (Fig. 4) for timber replacement in applications such as floor decking, exterior and interior panels. These trials were conducted in Nanjing, China. Several different compositions of polymers and kenaf fibre blends were

produced. Different components of the plant were utilized such as bast, core and whole stem. Various profiles were produced from the trials for light and heavy home exterior decking and wall panelling applications. HASB is looking into the viability of converting its core-stem material into polymer-blended interior panels after the extraction of bast fibres. These products will be promoted as green renewable materials. Currently, HASB and the National Kenaf and Tobacco Board of Malaysia are jointly developing a 5-hectare plot for a kenaf variety test in Kota Marudu Sabah. Another 50 hectares will be developed by the end of 2010 for bast fibre and powdered core production. Cut-to-length fibres and powdered-core fibres with specifications of 1-5 mm are produced. The powdered-core fibres will be processed into pallets for biofuel applications.
Tab. 1: Kenaf Fibre Characteristics

Whole kenaf
Fibre length (mm) Diameter (microns)

Kenaf bast

Kenaf core

1.28

2.6

0.6

20

30

Lignin (%)

13.2

7.7

17.4

An alternative fibre
HASB is currently developing kenaf fibres (Fig. 5) to replace glass fibres in exterior automotive parts such as front and back bumpers (Fig. 6).

Fig. 3: Kenaf-based feed

Strong governmental support
The Malaysian Government is heavily promoting the development of kenaf, as the next major industrial crop for the country in line with its policy in developing new sources of economic growth. To date, the Government has spent RM50 million to develop kenaf through research and development in upstream and downstream areas. The project is currently under the purview of the Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities. The agencies entrusted to undertake the project are the National Kenaf and Tobacco Board and the Fibre Bio-Composite Development Centre (FIDEC) under the Malaysian Timber Industry Board. Various universities and research institutions are also heavily involved in the project. The recent International Kenaf and Allied Fibres Conference (ICKAF) held in Malaysia reaffirmed the country’s seriousness in developing the industry. A major success was scored back in the year 2004, when the world’s first and only kenaf fibreboard factory under Panasonic Electric Works Ltd. was established in the state of Pahang. The factory currently produces 60,000 pieces of board per month for export to Japan and is becoming very popular among housing developers for its light weight, high strength and eco-friendly characteristics. HASB will be supplying Panasonic cut fibres, as the factory is in the process of increasing its production capacity. ... /...

22

jec composites magazine / No59 August - September 2010



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010

Cover
Contents
NEWS WORLDWIDE
Goodrich Corporation acquires Crompton Technology Group
Reichhold expands manufacturing capacity in Turkey
LAP wins order from Airbus
Toho Tenax Europe to supply carbon fibre for Bombardier Cseries
Glass Fibre - A global competition for breakthrough composite applications
Agenda of events
Innovation - Phenolic prepreg products for interior applications
BUSINESS
Market survey: China Yuan Long FRP broadens its range of skills beyond pultrusion
Shanghai Tung Hsing Technology: steady growth through diversified markets
Niche Market Bio-based polymers: a revolutionnary change
Trends Kenaf, a fibre for the future: the Harusmas experience
Mechanical properties of naturalfibre-reinforced composites
FEATURE
Design - Wave impact resistance of racing yacht composites
Infusion - Regatta racing at the highest level
Adhesive - Flame-retardant adhesive for power packs in marine applications
Control - Validation of marine structures - Testing appraoches
Resin - New styrene-free resin: better for Catamaran Cruisers and the environment
VOC - Presatured wipes reduce VOC emissions
High performance - 48 days, 7 hours, 44 minutes around the world
USERS' PLATFORM
Composites in the world
Ying Yang table
The most luxurious golf car ever made
New carbon fibre band watch
Successful partners - A prefabricated FRP bridge for the oil and gas industry
Low-cost structural thermoplastic composites for transport
Making modular bus body shells from composite materials
Tougher fire-rated bus parts thanks to intumescent topcoat
KNOW-HOW
Bonding - Composite bonders - meeting the requirements of modern engineering
Manufacturing - ESTRIM - a fast-demoulding injection technology for epoxy composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 3
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Toho Tenax Europe to supply carbon fibre for Bombardier Cseries
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Glass Fibre - A global competition for breakthrough composite applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Innovation - Phenolic prepreg products for interior applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Market survey: China Yuan Long FRP broadens its range of skills beyond pultrusion
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Shanghai Tung Hsing Technology: steady growth through diversified markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Niche Market Bio-based polymers: a revolutionnary change
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Trends Kenaf, a fibre for the future: the Harusmas experience
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Mechanical properties of naturalfibre-reinforced composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Design - Wave impact resistance of racing yacht composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Infusion - Regatta racing at the highest level
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Adhesive - Flame-retardant adhesive for power packs in marine applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Control - Validation of marine structures - Testing appraoches
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Resin - New styrene-free resin: better for Catamaran Cruisers and the environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - VOC - Presatured wipes reduce VOC emissions
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - High performance - 48 days, 7 hours, 44 minutes around the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - New carbon fibre band watch
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Successful partners - A prefabricated FRP bridge for the oil and gas industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Low-cost structural thermoplastic composites for transport
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Making modular bus body shells from composite materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Tougher fire-rated bus parts thanks to intumescent topcoat
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Bonding - Composite bonders - meeting the requirements of modern engineering
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Manufacturing - ESTRIM - a fast-demoulding injection technology for epoxy composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 68
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