JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 36

FEATURE

“Marine”

g…/… Validation of marine structures - Testing appraoches due to the specific geometry of the section: the final failure was initiated in flexure on the thickest section of the sole and propagated inside the cells. It is important to note that the failure is not governed by the compressive failure of the transverse partitions. The force/displacement curve shows that a significant loss of rigidity occurs at 480 kN. The final failure was observed at 770 kN.

Non-destructive tests based on modal analysis
Non-destructive methods based on modal analysis offer many advantages, both for measuring dynamic properties and for estimating the global rigidity of structures. Three examples of structural tests are presented on keel, mast and cable rigging elements. With the optimization of the IMOCA Open 60 racing monohull, a resonance phenomenon appeared on the keel. The problem results from a coupling effect between the vibration behaviours in flexion and torsion, and occurs at high speed when the torsional rigidity of the keel is much lower than the flexural rigidity and the ballast weight. Measurements during sailing showed that the vibration modes concerned are the first modes in flexure and torsion. The dynamic behaviour of ballast keels was investigated using a vibration analysis protocol. This test is now recommended by the IMOCA class rules. The objectives are as follows: - Validating the first natural frequencies in flexion and torsion in relation to the theoretical values of the design office. Non-coupled values of these frequencies are expected in order to ensure a good dynamic behaviour of the keel. - Implementing periodic controls. Structural modifications of the keel or a loss of rigidity due to damage can change the natural frequency values. For example, a higher ballast weight compared to the initial keel configuration leads to lower natural frequencies. As shown in Figure 3, these vibration measurements were performed using accelerometers and video analysis. Similarly, NCD developed a measuring protocol for masts. The aim
Fig. 3: Keel test - Determination of natural frequencies

is to validate the dynamic signatures of new masts with respect to calculated values from the design office and to perform periodic controls. The measurements are especially useful to validate a construction for standardized production. The test protocol includes two sets of measurements in longitudinal and transverse configurations: - simply supported: the mast is set on cradles, - free/free: the mast is hanging from elastic cables. The events are recorded using accelerometers and the signals are analysed by FFT (Fast Fourrier Transform) and analytical models. Based on the signals and natural frequencies measured on the mast, two parameters are estimated: - global flexural rigidities between the limit conditions of the test, - dynamic coefficients of damping as indicators of response time.

Focus
NCD is an independent consulting firm that was created in Brest, France in 2007. NCD specializes in composite materials engineering. Its services include composite design, quality control and surveys, research on the damage tolerance of composite materials, and non-destructive testing of structures using modal analysis techniques. Established in Brest, France since 2002, FMC specializes in the manufacture of composite parts and structures. The company offers a number of manufacturing processes, from Class 1 autoclave prepregs to infusion moulding and including RTM, LRI, RFI, and compression moulding. Its main customers are in the defence, oceanography, nuclear energy and racing yacht sectors.

Fig. 4: Mast test – Dynamic signature in bending

36

jec composites magazine / No59 August - September 2010



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010

Cover
Contents
NEWS WORLDWIDE
Goodrich Corporation acquires Crompton Technology Group
Reichhold expands manufacturing capacity in Turkey
LAP wins order from Airbus
Toho Tenax Europe to supply carbon fibre for Bombardier Cseries
Glass Fibre - A global competition for breakthrough composite applications
Agenda of events
Innovation - Phenolic prepreg products for interior applications
BUSINESS
Market survey: China Yuan Long FRP broadens its range of skills beyond pultrusion
Shanghai Tung Hsing Technology: steady growth through diversified markets
Niche Market Bio-based polymers: a revolutionnary change
Trends Kenaf, a fibre for the future: the Harusmas experience
Mechanical properties of naturalfibre-reinforced composites
FEATURE
Design - Wave impact resistance of racing yacht composites
Infusion - Regatta racing at the highest level
Adhesive - Flame-retardant adhesive for power packs in marine applications
Control - Validation of marine structures - Testing appraoches
Resin - New styrene-free resin: better for Catamaran Cruisers and the environment
VOC - Presatured wipes reduce VOC emissions
High performance - 48 days, 7 hours, 44 minutes around the world
USERS' PLATFORM
Composites in the world
Ying Yang table
The most luxurious golf car ever made
New carbon fibre band watch
Successful partners - A prefabricated FRP bridge for the oil and gas industry
Low-cost structural thermoplastic composites for transport
Making modular bus body shells from composite materials
Tougher fire-rated bus parts thanks to intumescent topcoat
KNOW-HOW
Bonding - Composite bonders - meeting the requirements of modern engineering
Manufacturing - ESTRIM - a fast-demoulding injection technology for epoxy composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 3
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Toho Tenax Europe to supply carbon fibre for Bombardier Cseries
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Glass Fibre - A global competition for breakthrough composite applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Innovation - Phenolic prepreg products for interior applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Market survey: China Yuan Long FRP broadens its range of skills beyond pultrusion
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Shanghai Tung Hsing Technology: steady growth through diversified markets
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Niche Market Bio-based polymers: a revolutionnary change
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 18
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Trends Kenaf, a fibre for the future: the Harusmas experience
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Mechanical properties of naturalfibre-reinforced composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Design - Wave impact resistance of racing yacht composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Infusion - Regatta racing at the highest level
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Adhesive - Flame-retardant adhesive for power packs in marine applications
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Control - Validation of marine structures - Testing appraoches
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Resin - New styrene-free resin: better for Catamaran Cruisers and the environment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - VOC - Presatured wipes reduce VOC emissions
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - High performance - 48 days, 7 hours, 44 minutes around the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - New carbon fibre band watch
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Successful partners - A prefabricated FRP bridge for the oil and gas industry
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Low-cost structural thermoplastic composites for transport
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Making modular bus body shells from composite materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Tougher fire-rated bus parts thanks to intumescent topcoat
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 57
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Bonding - Composite bonders - meeting the requirements of modern engineering
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 61
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - Manufacturing - ESTRIM - a fast-demoulding injection technology for epoxy composites
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 64
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 65
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 66
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #59 - August/September 2010 - 68
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