JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 39

FRP recycling technology using subcritical water hydrolysis
Background

Fig. 3: Concept of FRP thermo-setting resin recycling using sub-critical water hydrolysis

Environment

valuable materials such as carbon fibres, resins and other components. Chemists have been trying to develop certain “degradation and rebuilding technologies” with synthetic resins from composites matrices, using supercritical or subcritical water systems. With these technologies, the "bumper to bumper recycling” dream will hopefully come true.

Osaka Prefecture University. Subcritical water is hightemperature, high-pressure water under the critical temperature (374°C). It is known to have a significant hydrolytic capability with high resin affinity due to its ion product content, which is 1,000 times higher than at ordinary temperature, and its low dielectric constant equal to organic solvents.

FRP recycling concept using subcritical water hydrolysis
Figure 3 shows the concept for the subcritical water hydrolysis recycling process applied to the thermosetting resin in FRP . First, unsaturated polyester (UP) is obtained through a dehydration reaction with glycol and organic acid. It is cured with styrene as cross-linking agent, glass fibre and inorganic filler. During cure, styrene develops a styrene cross-linking moiety to form a lattice molecular structure of thermosetting polyester resin. The resin’s ester bonds can be hydrolysed using the significant hydrolytic capability of subcritical water to generate resin raw materials and styrene-fumaric acid copolymer (SFC). The same monomers of resin raw materials are obtained since the ester bonds were generated through dehydration.

Fibre-reinforced plastics are defined as composite materials made of a thermosetting resin and inorganic materials such as inorganic fillers or glass fibre. They are widely used for many products such as bathtubs or pleasure boats due to their lightness and high mechanical strength. They are used in automotive parts to save weight and thus reduce C02 emissions, and trials applying them for automotive body parts have also been conducted. However, their constituent thermosetting resin cannot be re-shaped after the final cure. In addition, they are very difficult to burn since their inorganic material content is about 50-70 wt.%. The total amount of FRP waste in Japan reaches 400,000 metric tons annually and most of it is landfilled, Ieading to a wasteful use of Iimited oil resources. To reduce waste amounts and utilize exhaustible oil resources more efficiently, these materials (including the thermosetting resins) should be recycled, which would be more conducive to a sustainable society. However, there is no effective method available to recycle FRP materials along with the thermosetting resin so, in spite of its weight-saving advantages, FRP is no longer widely accepted because improved recycling rates are now required for automotive parts. Our research aims at establishing an effective horizontal recycling technology that includes thermosetting resin so as to solve the above-mentioned environmental issues. We focused on subcritical water hydrolysis of thermosetting resins and were instructed by Professor Hiroyuki Yoshida of

No61 November - December 2010 / jec composites magazine
Fig. 4: Sub-critical water hydrolysis experiment

Optimizing reaction conditions for subcritical water hydrolysis

Figure 4 shows the experimental results of subcritical water hydrolysis. The experiment started with a reaction temperature higher than 300°C. The reaction liquid collected was black at 360°C for 20 min. Only 20% of the resin can be recycled, and 70% of the decomposing organic ingredients appear to be substances derived from pyrolysis of the styrene

Before reaction

Reaction liquid (360°C, 20min.)

Reaction liquid (230°C, 4h.)

39



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010

Cover
Contents
NEWS WORLDWIDE
Companies
Spirit AeroSystems and GOL Linhas Aereas Inteligentes enter into agreements
CTRM and CTL to commercialize composites testing in Asia
IDI Composites International announces installation of automated BMC production line
Umeco and Shanghai Leadgo Technology form a joint venture in China
SAIC awarded USD 11 million contract to deliver manufacturing facility for composite building materials
Airbus completes allocation of A350 XWB airframe work packages to China
Hexagon Composites signs new major contract with Daimler AG
National Aerospace Laboratories: incisive know-how
Innovations - Twelve companies rewarded by JEC and CCE for their composites innovations
Agenda of events
Equipment: Welding - Increasing bond strength and reducing defects in ultrasonic welding
BUSINESS
Market survey - Aerospace composites in Quebec: a wealth of players and R&D
AN INTERVIEW WITH JACQUES CABANA PRESIDENT & GENERAL MANAGER FDC COMPOSITES Inc.
Niche Market - Tool-side breathing allows BAE Systems to manufacture its new UAV
Trend - Composites and the carbon label
FEATURE - AUTOMOTIVE
Data - World ranking of manufacturers years 2009
Trend -Formula One experience to drive forward other industries
Application - BMW's MCV, the first mass produced car with a carbon passenger cell
An interesting solution for NASCAR race engine alternators
Prepreg materials investigated as a storage battery for future cars
Research & Development - Lamborghini prepares for the future with a new carbon-fibre research development
Environment - How adhesives reduce emissions, minimize waste and improve recycling
FRP recycling in Europe, North America and the Pacific Rim area
USER'S PLATFORM
Composites in the world - Agile as a snake for ice climbing
Recyclable emergency snow shovel
Superbus: an innovative public transport concept
Successful partners - Conseil & Technique, an SME dedicated to the development of new products
Application - Advanced graphite composite bipolar plate for fuel cells
KNOW-HOW
Software - four factors drive the development of superior wind blades
Simulation - Bespoke simulation for thermoplastic composite
Raw material - Latent acid catalysts for process control phenolics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 3
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Hexagon Composites signs new major contract with Daimler AG
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - National Aerospace Laboratories: incisive know-how
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Innovations - Twelve companies rewarded by JEC and CCE for their composites innovations
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Equipment: Welding - Increasing bond strength and reducing defects in ultrasonic welding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Market survey - Aerospace composites in Quebec: a wealth of players and R&D
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - AN INTERVIEW WITH JACQUES CABANA PRESIDENT & GENERAL MANAGER FDC COMPOSITES Inc.
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Niche Market - Tool-side breathing allows BAE Systems to manufacture its new UAV
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Trend - Composites and the carbon label
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Data - World ranking of manufacturers years 2009
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Trend -Formula One experience to drive forward other industries
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Application - BMW's MCV, the first mass produced car with a carbon passenger cell
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - An interesting solution for NASCAR race engine alternators
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Prepreg materials investigated as a storage battery for future cars
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Research & Development - Lamborghini prepares for the future with a new carbon-fibre research development
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Environment - How adhesives reduce emissions, minimize waste and improve recycling
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - FRP recycling in Europe, North America and the Pacific Rim area
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Superbus: an innovative public transport concept
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Successful partners - Conseil & Technique, an SME dedicated to the development of new products
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Application - Advanced graphite composite bipolar plate for fuel cells
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Software - four factors drive the development of superior wind blades
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Simulation - Bespoke simulation for thermoplastic composite
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Raw material - Latent acid catalysts for process control phenolics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 60
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