JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 40

40

cross-linking moiety, suggesting that hydrolysis could be dominant, ideally through suppressing the pyrolysis. It was reported that the pyrolysis of the styrene cross-linking moiety of the thermosetting polyester resin started at 230°C [I]. To suppress the pyrolysis, the reaction was conducted at 230°C and Fig.6: UP resin horizontal recycling from recovered glycol 2.8 MPa for 4 hours with calcium carbonate. Figure 8 shows the experimental results obtained at polymerized into polyester with new resin raw materials to 230°C. The reaction liquid obtained was clear. No substances produce recycled UP resin with molecular weight higher than derived from pyrolysis of the styrene cross-linking moiety were 4,000, that was used to produce an FRP board sample for observed. Several alkali catalysts were then examined under the strength-characteristic testing. The recovered glycol/new glycol same reaction conditions (230°C, 2.8 MPa for 4 hours) to ratio was 1:9. It showed strength characteristics equivalent to a improve the conversion. Table 4 shows that the highest new UP resin. conversion of 96.9% was achieved using potassium hydrate. The recovery rate of glycol and fumaric acid was 70.7% and 21.81% Enhanced recycling of the styrene-fumaric acid by weight, respectively. copolymer Molecular structure analysis of the SFC suggested that it has a Tab.4: Cleaned surface by different solvents : potential for various applications. In exploring the application, comparison between cotton cloth and presaturated wipes performances it was found that its molecular structure was similar to that of a Reaction Glycol Fumaric-acid Catalyst commercial LPA (low profile additive) comprising polystyrene ratio recovery ratio recovery ratio for FRP forming (Figure 7). g…/… FRP recycling in Europe, North America and the Pacific Rim area No Catalyst CaCO3 K3PO4 KOH 15.9% 30.8% 41.5% 96.9% 33.7% 32.2% 58.6% 70.7% 9.0% 1.2% 3.6%
Fig.7: Styrene-fumaric acid copolymer and a commercial low profile additive

FEATURE “Automotive”

Figure 5 shows the SFC extracted from the reaction liquid and its molecular formula. A molecular structure analysis of the SFC showed that the styrene/fumaric acid ratio was 2.2:1 and its molecular weight was approximately 30,000 [2]. The weight of SFC was 75% of the weight of the initial thermosetting resin. Thus, combining with glycol and fumaric acid, it was shown that up to 96 wt.% of the initial resin existed in the reaction liquid as reusable ingredients. It was obvious that hydrolysis was ideally dominant and the pyrolysis was almost suppressed in these reaction conditions.

Fig. 5: Styrene-fumaric acid copolymer

Horizontal recycling of UP resin

Figure 6 shows the experimental results of UP resin horizontal recycling from recovered glycol. The recovered glycol was

jec composites magazine / No61 November - December 2010
21.8%

The LPA is a high value-added additive used to suppress shrinkage during FRP forming. The LPA stores styrene before forming and releases it during forming, keeping the space occupied by styrene vacant to suppress shrinkage. Therefore, solubility in styrene is needed to generate a shrinkage control effect. The SFC was not soluble in the styrene monomer due to its hydrophilic group. Hydrophobic modification of the SFC using benzyl chloride as modification agent and tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide as phase transfer catalyst was tried to add solubility in styrene. Figure 8 shows the modification reaction experiment result. A modified SFC – SBFC (styrene-benzyl fumarate copolymer) – was obtained. SMC (sheet moulding compound) sheets were produced with the resulting SBFC and the commercial LPA comprising polystyrene, inorganic filler and glass fibre to evaluate the shrinkage control effect. After cure of the SMC sheet, the



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010

Cover
Contents
NEWS WORLDWIDE
Companies
Spirit AeroSystems and GOL Linhas Aereas Inteligentes enter into agreements
CTRM and CTL to commercialize composites testing in Asia
IDI Composites International announces installation of automated BMC production line
Umeco and Shanghai Leadgo Technology form a joint venture in China
SAIC awarded USD 11 million contract to deliver manufacturing facility for composite building materials
Airbus completes allocation of A350 XWB airframe work packages to China
Hexagon Composites signs new major contract with Daimler AG
National Aerospace Laboratories: incisive know-how
Innovations - Twelve companies rewarded by JEC and CCE for their composites innovations
Agenda of events
Equipment: Welding - Increasing bond strength and reducing defects in ultrasonic welding
BUSINESS
Market survey - Aerospace composites in Quebec: a wealth of players and R&D
AN INTERVIEW WITH JACQUES CABANA PRESIDENT & GENERAL MANAGER FDC COMPOSITES Inc.
Niche Market - Tool-side breathing allows BAE Systems to manufacture its new UAV
Trend - Composites and the carbon label
FEATURE - AUTOMOTIVE
Data - World ranking of manufacturers years 2009
Trend -Formula One experience to drive forward other industries
Application - BMW's MCV, the first mass produced car with a carbon passenger cell
An interesting solution for NASCAR race engine alternators
Prepreg materials investigated as a storage battery for future cars
Research & Development - Lamborghini prepares for the future with a new carbon-fibre research development
Environment - How adhesives reduce emissions, minimize waste and improve recycling
FRP recycling in Europe, North America and the Pacific Rim area
USER'S PLATFORM
Composites in the world - Agile as a snake for ice climbing
Recyclable emergency snow shovel
Superbus: an innovative public transport concept
Successful partners - Conseil & Technique, an SME dedicated to the development of new products
Application - Advanced graphite composite bipolar plate for fuel cells
KNOW-HOW
Software - four factors drive the development of superior wind blades
Simulation - Bespoke simulation for thermoplastic composite
Raw material - Latent acid catalysts for process control phenolics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 3
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 4
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Hexagon Composites signs new major contract with Daimler AG
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - National Aerospace Laboratories: incisive know-how
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Innovations - Twelve companies rewarded by JEC and CCE for their composites innovations
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Agenda of events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Equipment: Welding - Increasing bond strength and reducing defects in ultrasonic welding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Market survey - Aerospace composites in Quebec: a wealth of players and R&D
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - AN INTERVIEW WITH JACQUES CABANA PRESIDENT & GENERAL MANAGER FDC COMPOSITES Inc.
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Niche Market - Tool-side breathing allows BAE Systems to manufacture its new UAV
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Trend - Composites and the carbon label
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Data - World ranking of manufacturers years 2009
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Trend -Formula One experience to drive forward other industries
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Application - BMW's MCV, the first mass produced car with a carbon passenger cell
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - An interesting solution for NASCAR race engine alternators
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Prepreg materials investigated as a storage battery for future cars
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Research & Development - Lamborghini prepares for the future with a new carbon-fibre research development
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Environment - How adhesives reduce emissions, minimize waste and improve recycling
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - FRP recycling in Europe, North America and the Pacific Rim area
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 40
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Superbus: an innovative public transport concept
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Successful partners - Conseil & Technique, an SME dedicated to the development of new products
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Application - Advanced graphite composite bipolar plate for fuel cells
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Software - four factors drive the development of superior wind blades
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Simulation - Bespoke simulation for thermoplastic composite
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - Raw material - Latent acid catalysts for process control phenolics
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #61 - November/December 2010 - 60
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