JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 31

Fig. 4: Joining TPT® preforms using stepped joints

not be disturbed. Utilization on nondevelopable forms with radii of curvature under 50 cm was the subject of a
specific research programme between
Multiplast and North Thin Ply Technology, and is now in application.

Matchless technologies
thanks to TPT®
The mechanical properties of TPT®
are still under study, although the
initial results confirm the theory
proposed by T. Yokozeki [1] and S.
Sihn [ 2] (article co-signed by S. Tsai).
A battery of tests is ongoing at the
EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale
de Lausanne). The guideline for the
tests on hundreds of specimens is to
compare laminates of the same thickness that were created with thin plies
(30 g/m²) and "intermediate" (100 g/
m²) and "thick" (300 g/m²) plies.
With the thin plies, a more uniform
microstructure, more homogeneous
fibre content and finer porosity are
usually observed. The rupture modes
are no longer primarily characterized
by interlaminar delamination, but by
ruptured fibres, making rupture easier
to predict and simulate and allowing
designers to lower the safety coefficients.
The use of thin plies results in improved mechanical properties:
- +230% in tensile damage
onset - quasi-isotropic
(QI) laminate
- +40% in ultimate tensile strength
- QI laminate
- +25% in ultimate compressive
strength - unidirectional laminate
- +30% in tensile damage onset -
notched QI laminate
- +20% in bearing strength -

No84 October 2013 /

Feature Marine

sail consists of a flexible
composite membrane made
of prepreg tapes oriented
in multiple directions and
then hot-moulded into 3D
shapes. The main difference between 3Di® et
TPT® lies in the type of fiFig. 2: TPT preforms consist of stacks of thin plies that are mapbres used and in the use of
ped out using software supplied with the ATL machine
a flexible PU resin for one
and a stiffer epoxy resin for
the other. TPT® was patented by North Thin Ply
Technology (NTPT), parent company to NorthSails.
The TPT® plies are laid up
one by one to make a preform, which is a stack of
Fig. 3: Preform layup and layout diagram for one of the C Class hulls plies arranged in different
directions as a function of
chose architect Guillaume Verdier,
the design. Laying up plies up to 18 g/
who is also currently involved in the
m² makes it possible to obtain quasiflight of the Emirates New Zealand's
isotropic stacks (0/+45/90/-45°) for
giant hydrofoil-assisted catamaran,
an areal weight that is as light as 72 g/
and Martin Fischer, a specialist in the
m², and also to integrate local reindesign of hydrofoil catamarans.
forcements directly into the preforms.
Flying entails low weight, which is
For the Class C, ATL was used to lay
why Multiplast and Groupama chose
up some of the reinforcements for the
Thin Ply Technology ®, or TPT®, to
foil box, shroud attachments and rudbuild the hulls. With this technology,
der blade bracket directly, integrating
it is possible to lay up ultra-thin carthem into the preforms. Marks in the
bon plies (as little as 18 g/m²) where
mould then enabled positioning the
standard products rarely achieve
panels during the laminating process.
under 80 g/m².
The preforms were joined using
stepped joints that were precisely
A process specifically inspired
positioned during stack design and
fabrication. This standard method
from racing sail fabrication
The ultra-thin unidirectional prepreg
for joining two laminates consists in
carbon/epoxy plies are laid up by an
creating stepped chamfers that are
automated tape layup (ATL) system
stacked and glued together. The autoto create flat "preforms" that are then
mated process improves load transfer
placed into a shaped mould. The
and guarantees uniform thickness at
layup machine was initially designed
the panel junctions, which is essential
to make 3Di® sails for NorthSails,
for applications like radomes, where
the world's leading sailmaker. A 3Di®
electromagnetic transmission should

jec composites magazine 31



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013

Cover
Edito
Point of view: global player
Contents
Agenda of Events
COMPANY & BUSINESS In Brief
APPLICATIONS
Industrial
Security
Automotive
MARKET
Trends
Bio-based
Basalt
FEATURE MARINE
Simulation
High-performance
TPT
Natural fibre
Core materials
Hybrid composite
China
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Curing agent
Delamination
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
P.U.
Services
VARTM
Metrology
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Point of view: global player
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Ad1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Ad2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - COMPANY & BUSINESS In Brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 11
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Industrial
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Security
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 15
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Automotive
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Trends
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 19
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Bio-based
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Basalt
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Simulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 24
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - High-performance
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 29
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - TPT
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Natural fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 34
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Core materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 37
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Hybrid composite
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - China
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Curing agent
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 43
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Delamination
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 46
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - P.U.
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Services
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - VARTM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Metrology
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #84 - October 2013 - 60
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