JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 20

glass fibre

coated with an aqueous sizing
that covers and protects the
glass surface, gives the product
abrasion resistance, allows for
processing into the desired
product shape and forms the
interface or interphase in the
composite.

Fig. 2: GlassFibreEurope Member Producers

Lanxess Deutschland, European Owens Corning Fiberglass,
P+D Glasseiden GmbH, and
PPG Industries Fiber Glass bv.
Continuous-filament glass fibre
(CFGF), commonly known as
glass fibre, is the reinforcement
of choice for a large variety of
plastics. Its success is due to its
excellent cost-to-performance
ratio and its versatility. Many
different matrix resin systems
and manufacturing processes
use glass fibre as a reinforcement enabling highly complex,
lightweight parts and high
degrees of functional integration. Glass fibre-reinforced
composite applications are
found in a broad variety of
market segments including
construction, infrastructure,
transportation, and recreation,
with new markets continuing to
emerge.
Recently, societal aspects such
as the energy footprint of a
glass fibre composite and its
life cycle effectiveness have
also become critical features.
The "circle of life" of glass
fibre-reinforced composites is
illustrated in Figure 1. Many

glass fibre-reinforced composite
applications have decades of
useful life, often repaying their
energy footprint several times
during service life. For example,
many of earliest "polyester"
boats, constructed in the 1950s,
are still in operation. The long
service life is also true for
composite applications in the
wind, pipe and tank, infrastructure and automotive industries.
The long service life and low
maintenance costs of glass fibre
composites, along with their
lightweight features, contribute
to lower energy usage and CO2
emissions and they are considered a worthy replacement for
more traditional materials.
Accurate data on the environmental footprint, or life cycle
inventory (LCI), of composite
constituents, are needed to
allow manufacturers to support the continued growth of
composites as a replacement
for other materials. This data
should be based on actual
industry practices in order to
obtain assessments that will be
embraced by the end user.
In 2009, GlassFibreEurope

(GFE), representing the majority of the European glass fibre
producers, undertook the effort
to generate updated, industrybased LCI data for the most
relevant glass fibre products
used by the composite industry
(Figure 2). The LCI data of
these products were finalized in
2012 and are to be combined
with resin and additive data
for an optimum conversion
process.
For the development of an LCI
for glass fibre manufacturing
and products, all components
have to be properly understood.
Figure 3 provides an overview
of the glass fibre manufacturing
process. Well-defined mineral
raw materials such as quartz,
clay, limestone and dolomite
are molten into a high-quality
glass melt, then drawn into
bundles of very fine filaments -
ranging from as low as 4 micron
to as high as 35 micron in
diameter. These filament fibres,
extruded from multi-hole,
precious metal alloy bushings,
should remain amorphous and
isotropic upon forming and
cooling. Before assembly of
the bundles, the filaments are

20 jec composites magazine / No86 January - February 2014

GFE undertook the effort to
develop an industry average
LCI for several products. As
an industry organization, data
could be obtained cost effectively, confidentially, and anonymously from a broad range
of manufacturers, countries
and sites. The process ensured
the results would objectively
answer customer questions and
collection of the data via third
parties would be credible under
peer review.
Since the glass fibre product
is used by the customer as a
constituent of a transformation
process into a composite part,
the GFE LCI is cradle-to-gate
analysis. This process for LCI
development has followed several consecutive phases. Early
in the process, the boundaries
for the process were defined
(Figure 4). All incoming materials used - fuel, glass batch
minerals, binder, consumables,
etc. - were included.
The materials used in the
transformation processes in
the plants - up to packaging
in the warehouse - were also
included. That meant that
data such as mining, binder
component synthesis and
transportation were included.
Process steps, such as batch
melting (upstream) and
forming, sizing application,
processing and drying and pack
out (downstream) were also
analysed and calculated. Based



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014

Cover
Edito
Point of view: volume production
Contents
Agenda of Events
COMPANY & BUSINESS
In Brief
Advanced materials
APPLICATIONS
Cargo
Marine
E-car
Motorcycle
MARKET
Glass fibre
Overview 2013
FEATURE PREPREG
Laminates
Paper
Equipment
Technology
Carbon fibre
Formulation
Process
Investment
Tool
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Additive manufacturing
Class A
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
Cutting
PVC
Recycling
Design
Filament winding
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Point of view: volume production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - In Brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Advanced materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Cargo
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Marine
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - E-car
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Motorcycle
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Glass fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Overview 2013
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Laminates
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Paper
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Equipment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Technology
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Carbon fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Formulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Investment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Tool
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Additive manufacturing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Class A
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Cutting
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - PVC
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Recycling
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Design
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Filament winding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 68
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