JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 24

overview 2013

To continue with wind energy,
China is still the largest consumer, although now more than a
third of demand is coming from
new markets. The wind energy
sector is faced with highly
fluctuating demand because it
is too dependent on state subsidies that go up and down as a
function of political majorities,
and its double-digit growth has
shrunk, in principle down to a
single digit for the near future.
And because the long-term
profitability of fracking is lower
than predicted, especially in the
United States, the wind energy
sector could once again benefit
from new choices in national
energy mixes. The United
Kingdom is already investing
in nuclear power, but also
(and heavily) in offshore wind
energy.

Bigger volume,
faster production rate,
cheaper price
In automotive, there is a critical
need to lower weight in order
to achieve the CO2 reduction
goals set for that sector in
Europe, the United States and
China. Composites are an
obvious choice as a solution.
Here, we're not talking about
sports cars, where composites
are now used systematically,
but about "Everyman's" car.
The iconic, all-electric BMW
i3 (Figure 2) is a mid-range
vehicle with a starting sales
price of US$42,000 in the
United States, CA$45,000 in
Canada and €35,000 in Europe.
The cars were first delivered
in Munich on 15 November
2013, and the first American
models should be ready for
delivery during the second
quarter 2014. BMW is the first
company to market a series
vehicle based on a CFRP solu-

about subsequent ones? Can
automated tape laying (ATL)
and automated fibre placement
(AFP) achieve lay-up rates of
50kg/h or more?

Raw materials

Fig. 2: The BMW i3 on the road ©BMW

tion. BMW was able to work
miracles in terms of automation
and to integrate the entire automotive composite value chain,
so the programme's success
could have a significant impact
there. Securing raw-materials
supply is key, leading to several
instances of partnerships in the
automotive carbon sector, e.g.
BMW-SGL, GM-Teijin, FordDow and Daimler-Toray.
In the automotive sector, composites have to not only strike
a balance with the ingrained
practices, customary production materials and new metal
developments, but especially to
achieve high output rates. We're
talking about millions of parts
produced, so it is imperative
to slash manufacturing times
to avoid having to build new
manufacturing facilities. Some
processes like SMC/BMC
or GMT have demonstrated
their robustness on fast cycles
and high production volumes.
But these are limited in terms
of mechanical performance
because they don't use oriented
fibres. A lot of hopes have
been pinned on organo-sheets
(see JEC Composites No.85),
although thermosets can also
provide innovative solutions.

We've seen many demonstrators in recent years, but a lot of
OEMs are still holding back.
Next fall's 2014 Paris Automotive Show could hold a few
surprises.
Prices exert considerable pressure in this sector, and composites will have to adapt. These
materials are very cost--competitive in small-run production.
For large series, however, only
expertise in fully automated,
robust processes can make
composites competitive with
metals, and you also have to
take the extra cost that builders
are willing to pay for the lower
weight into consideration.
Aircraft manufacturers also
consider that composites are
too expensive, even if they are
using them in their latest programmes to the extent of 50%
(at least, the two largest aircraft
manufacturers). But are the
financial savings over the duration of commercial operation
(of the "XXXX euros/dollars
saved per kilogram reduced"
type) calculated based on
earlier programmes or on the
latest? Lowering weight does
have a limit in terms of price.
Ramp-up will be more of a
problem: the new programmes
include robotics, but what

24 jec composites magazine / No86 January - February 2014

There were few announcements from the carbon market
in 2013, since the investment
plans were communicated
previously. For most carbon
fibre manufacturers, it is a
strategic market, but one
that has not revealed all of its
potential, especially in terms
of financial returns. The ticket
into the market is expensive.
One 2013 announcement left a
lasting impression, and that was
Toray's intention to buy out
Zoltek - the Number One in
"high-end" wanting to acquire
the Number One in industrial
fibre. In 2014 we could see the
advent of an absolute heavyweight once all the regulators
have ruled - let's not forget that
carbon is a strategic material for
countries worldwide.
A look at the 2013 issues of JEC
Composites shows that both
the organo-sheet/thermoplastic and natural fibre/bioplastic
markets are developing. There
are also new builds and projects
in basalt fibre production.
Jushi's announcement that it
has set up a glass-fibre manufacturing facility in Egypt for
the European market (mainly
thermoplastics) marked another 2013 milestone.

Conclusion
Here, we might use a sports
metaphor: in 2013, composites
got into the starting-blocks, and
now it's on your marks, get set,
go! n
More information:
www.jeccomposites.com


http://www.jeccomposites.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014

Cover
Edito
Point of view: volume production
Contents
Agenda of Events
COMPANY & BUSINESS
In Brief
Advanced materials
APPLICATIONS
Cargo
Marine
E-car
Motorcycle
MARKET
Glass fibre
Overview 2013
FEATURE PREPREG
Laminates
Paper
Equipment
Technology
Carbon fibre
Formulation
Process
Investment
Tool
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Additive manufacturing
Class A
TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
Cutting
PVC
Recycling
Design
Filament winding
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Point of view: volume production
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - In Brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Advanced materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Cargo
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Marine
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 16
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - E-car
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Motorcycle
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Glass fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 20
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 22
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Overview 2013
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Laminates
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 26
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 27
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Paper
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Equipment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 32
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Technology
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Carbon fibre
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 38
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Formulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Process
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Investment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Tool
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 48
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Additive manufacturing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 50
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 51
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Class A
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 54
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Cutting
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - PVC
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 58
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Recycling
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 60
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Design
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 62
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 63
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Filament winding
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 67
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #86 - January/February 2014 - 68
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