JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 32

CFRT

environmentally-disruptive process that
requires significant investment since twothirds of the cost of typical line upgrades
goes to reinforcing or replacing existing
structures.
Overhead transmission lines are required
to meet tough standards, which include
minimum ground clearance, ice and wind
loads and limited thermal operating conditions to prevent damage. These standards, together with environmental conditions (such as corrosion) and terrain
type (mountains, rivers, etc.), make line
design a challenging and demanding job.
Every line is designed to maintain a safe
clearance (distance above the ground) at
rated power transmission (electrical load)
under specific environmental conditions
(ambient temperature, wind speed, wind
direction, etc.).
In a simplified manner, the factors influencing the line clearance can be grouped
into two broad categories: mechanical
and thermal.
Mechanical factors include conductor
properties (weight, strength and "modulus," which is the stretch versus load
response), any external loads (such as ice
and wind) and line design factors (such
as the initial tension to which the conductor is installed).
Thermal factors include the conductor
properties (electrical resistance, surface
condition, coefficient of linear expansion,
etc.) and environmental factors (such as
ambient temperature, wind speed and direction relative to the conductor, amount
of solar heating, etc.). All of these factors
work together to determine how much
the line sags, thus reducing the clearance beneath the line, as the conductor
transmits power. Conductors made with
lighter weight, stronger support materials
and with better thermal performance can
transmit more power and carry higher
contingency power loads while maintaining the proper line clearance.
Line design in challenging geographies
such as mountains, large bodies of water
or areas plagued by severe weather are

Fig. 2: The new C7 Overhead Conductor features a multi-strand thermoplastic composite core based on
materials that have been broadly used for decades in high-performance aerospace, industrial, and automotive
applications (image courtesy of Southwire Company, LLC)

especially suited to the use of HTLS
conductors.

Existing composite-core
alternatives
The ability to develop high-strength,
lightweight, low-sag conductor cores literally changes the way transmission lines
are designed. This, in turn, has driven the
investment of significant time and effort
to develop higher performance conductors to replace traditional stranded steelcore technology over the past decade. To
date, two composite core designs have
seen limited commercial success - carbon
fibre-reinforced thermoset composite and
aluminium metal-matrix composite technologies - but each technology brings
both challenges and benefits.
Several carbon fibre-reinforced thermoset
products are on the market. The majority
of the conductors using these cores are
composed of alternating layers of fully
annealed aluminium strands supported
by a single, monolithic rod of carbon
fibre-reinforced thermoset composite.
Conductors used for transmission lines
have always used multi-strand core designs to eliminate a single point of failure
and for robust tolerance of inherently
demanding installation conditions. To
point, since the 1970s, manufacturers of
aluminium conductor steel supported
(ACSS) products, which use the same
fully annealed aluminium, will not supply

32 jec composites magazine / No94 January - February 2015

ACSS or any "core-supported" product
with a single-strand steel core for this
very reason. Some of the conductors
that use the monolithic rod design also
require a larger bending radius than traditional steel-core transmission conductors, which may require larger installation
equipment. Careful handling as well as
the use of specialized connectors and
terminations may also be required.
The second type of composite core presently on the market is an aluminium metal-matrix design composed of aluminium
oxide (alumina) fibres embedded in highpurity aluminium, which can be stranded.
The conductor design using this core is
made by stranding alternating layers of
aluminium zirconium alloy strands over
a multi-strand (typically 7- or 19-strand)
metal-matrix core. This product can withstand high operating temperatures, up to
240°C, and adverse chemical reactions
without appreciable loss of strength. It is
installed using traditional-style fittings.
The main drawback of this product is
its relatively high cost and slightly larger
bending radius compared to ACSR.

Next-generation HTLS conductor
features thermoplastic composite
Given the increasing need to supply
more power using existing right-of-ways
more efficiently, two industry leaders -
Southwire Company, LLC (Carrollton,
Georgia, USA), one of the world's largest



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015

Cover
Edito
Point of view: Raw materials
Contents
Companies & Business
In brief
Resins - lnterview
Agenda of Events
Applications
Aerospace
Defense
Sustainability
Market
Overview 2014
China - Interview
FEATURE CARBON
Carbon
Training
Investment - Interview
Simulation
CFRT
Nano
Equipment
Marine
Research & Development
Monitoring
LCM
Technology & Innovations
Manufacturing
Pultrusion
NDT
Matrix
Simulation
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Point of view: Raw materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Resins - lnterview
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 14
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Ad1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Ad2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Aerospace
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Defense
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Sustainability
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Overview 2014
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - China - Interview
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Carbon
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Training
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Investment - Interview
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Simulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - CFRT
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Nano
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Equipment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Marine
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Monitoring
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - LCM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Manufacturing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Pultrusion
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - NDT
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Matrix
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Simulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 60
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