JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 54

simulation

Simulation and analysis of composites challenges and opportunities
Composites offer many advantages in terms of stiffness, weight reduction, corrosion resistance, and fatigue performance. These advantages have led to the increased use of these materials in a variety of
industries. To fully utilize composites in the most efficient and beneficial manner, design and analysis tools will need to continue to evolve
and improve. The industry is making tremendous progress but we
are still far away from being able to design composite structures with
the same confidence and efficiency as with isotropic materials such
as metals and plastics. As with any worthwhile undertaking, the process for addressing the challenge will yield improved understanding
and new design methods that will benefit the product development
community, leading to better and more sustainable products.

C

omposite materials have made their
mark in the aerospace industry due
to their light weight, high stiffnessto-weight ratio, excellent fatigue durability, and corrosion resistance. They have
also been prominent in sporting goods
and wind energy. They are now making
their way into other industries including
automotive, marine, energy, construction, and consumer products. These
materials offer tremendous advantages
but they also introduce many more
complexities in the design and analysis
of composite structures.

is also important but once one is selected, the designer only has to deal
with shape and/or thickness changes to
create a design that meets requirements.
Composite structures are non-isotropic
meaning their material properties have
directionality - i.e. they have different
properties in different directions. This is
most significant with continuous fibre
composites where the stiffness in the
fibre direction is generally an order of
magnitude greater than transverse to the
fibre direction. Even for chopped fibre

Design issues
The design and analysis of composite
structures is quite different than with
metal structures. Metals are isotropic,
meaning their material properties are
not direction dependent. The only
variables that a design engineer needs
to consider are generally shape and
thickness. The selection of the material

By
Robert Yancey
VP - Aerospace Solutions
Altair Engineering

composites, there is some directionality in the material properties unless the
fibre orientation is completely random,
which is rarely the case.
In addition to directionality issues,
laminate composites also have the additional variables of ply orientation and
stacking sequence to consider. Thickness
variations for laminate composites also
are more complex because these require
ply drop-offs or ply build-ups to affect
these thickness changes. The drop-off
or build-up zones
create regions that
can affect potential
failure modes in the
part and they have to
be engineered carefully to not create
weak areas that can
precipitate failure.

Fig. 1: Overview of 3-phase approach for composites optimization with
OptiStruct

54 jec composites magazine / No94 January - February 2015

The addition of so
many variables to
the design process



JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015

Cover
Edito
Point of view: Raw materials
Contents
Companies & Business
In brief
Resins - lnterview
Agenda of Events
Applications
Aerospace
Defense
Sustainability
Market
Overview 2014
China - Interview
FEATURE CARBON
Carbon
Training
Investment - Interview
Simulation
CFRT
Nano
Equipment
Marine
Research & Development
Monitoring
LCM
Technology & Innovations
Manufacturing
Pultrusion
NDT
Matrix
Simulation
Index
In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Cover
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Edito
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Point of view: Raw materials
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 5
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Contents
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 7
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - In brief
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 9
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 10
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Resins - lnterview
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 12
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 13
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 14
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Agenda of Events
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Ad1
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Ad2
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Aerospace
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 17
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Defense
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Sustainability
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Overview 2014
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 21
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - China - Interview
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 23
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Carbon
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 25
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Training
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Investment - Interview
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 28
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Simulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 30
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 31
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - CFRT
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 33
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Nano
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 35
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 36
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Equipment
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Marine
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 39
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Monitoring
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 41
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 42
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - LCM
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 44
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 45
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Manufacturing
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 47
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Pultrusion
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 49
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - NDT
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Matrix
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 52
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 53
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Simulation
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 55
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 56
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - Index
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - In the world
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 59
JEC COMPOSITES MAGAZINE - Issue #94 - January/February 2015 - 60
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2011_137
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2009_136
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2007_135
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm_2020_Q1_Innovation_Report
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2005_Special_Issue3
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2005_134
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2003_133
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm2001_132
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_Special_Issue2
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1911_131
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1909_130
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1907_129
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1905_128
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_Special_Issue1
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1903_127
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1901_126
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1811_125
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1810_124
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1808_123
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1807_122
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1805_121
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1804_120
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1803_119
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1802_119-Supplement_Innovation_Report
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1801_118
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1711_117
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1710_116
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1708_115
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1707_114
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1706_113
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1704_112
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1703_111
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1701_110
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1611_109
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1610_108
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1608_107
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1607_106
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1605_105
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1604_104
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1603_103
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1601_102
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1511_101
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1510_100
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1509_99
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1507_98
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1505_97
https://www.nxtbook.fr/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1504_96
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1503_95
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1501_94
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1412_93
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1410_92
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1409_91
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1406_90
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1405_89
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1404_88
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1403_87
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1401_86
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1311_85
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1310_84
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1308_83
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1307_82
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1305_81
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1304_80
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1303_79
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1301_78
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1212_77
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1210_76
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1208_75
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1207_74
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1206_73
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1204_72
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1203_71
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1201_70
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1111_69
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1110_68
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1108_67
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1107_66
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1105_65
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1104_64
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1103_63
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1101_62
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1011_61
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1010_60
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1009_59
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1006_58
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1005_57
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1004_56
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1003_55
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm1001_54
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0911_53
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0910_52
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0909_51
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0907-08_50
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0906_49
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0904_48
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0903_47
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0901_46
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0811_45
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0810_44
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0809_43
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0807_42
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0806_41
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0805_40
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0803_39
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0801_38
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0712_37
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0710_36
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0709_35
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0707_34
https://www.nxtbook.com/newpress/jeccomposites/jcm0706_33
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com