December 2010 - Parks & Recreation - 39

leaves open ample alternative channels of communication. "

Under the circumstances of this case,
Metro conceded that " the Zoo is a public
forum. " Further, Metro and Higher Taste
both conceded that " the resolution is content neutral " (i.e., it is justified without reference to content of regulated speech).
As noted by the court, " [i]t is the government's burden to establish the presence of these three factors, " i.e., (1)
content neutral, (2) narrowly tailored,
and (3) ample alternative channels. Further, the court noted that " the restriction
will be held unconstitutional " if " the government fails to meet its burden with respect to any of these three prongs. "
Moreover, the court found " there must
be a threshold showing that the factual
situation demonstrates a real need for
the government to act to protect its interest " in order to " justify any intrusion
on First Amendment rights at all. "

narrowly tailored if it targets and eliminates no more than the exact source
of the " evil " it seeks to remedy.

In response to Higher Taste's constitutional challenge, Metro had asserted
that " the resolution is narrowly tailored to
serve its significant interest in protecting

the public safety and park aesthetics. "
Specifically, Metro claimed the challenged " resolution promotes its substantial interest in Zoo aesthetics " and it was,
therefore, constitutional to " enact a resolution to completely ban sales within a
certain area of the Zoo " in an effort " to

Narrowly Tailored?
As described by the federal district
court, " a regulation of the time, place,
or manner of protected speech must be
narrowly tailored to serve the government's legitimate, content-neutral interests; it need not be the least restrictive or
least intrusive means of doing so. "
Narrow tailoring will be found so
long as the regulation promotes a
substantial governmental interest that
would be achieved less effectively
absent the regulation. Further, the
regulation will not be invalid simply
because a court concludes that the
government's interest could be adequately served by some
less-speech-restrictive alternative.

Accordingly, in determining whether
the challenged resolution in this particular instance was narrowly tailored, the
federal district court would " first identify
and analyze the purported content-neutral interests of Metro. "
The content-neutral resolution will be
narrowly tailored so long as the regulation promotes a substantial
government interest that would be
achieved less effectively absent the
regulation. A complete ban can be
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December 2010 - Parks & Recreation

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