March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 35

By James C. Kozlowski, J.D., Ph.D.

LAW REVIEW

Camp " Cleanup " Makes
Homeless Status Criminal

A

N OTHERWISE LEGITIMATE PUBLIC HEALTH AND SAFETY
ORDINANCE or policy may be unconstitutional when it

is applied in a selective and discriminatory fashion
to effectively punish individuals based on their lack of social
status, rather than actual misdeeds.

The case of Anderson v. City of Portland, Civ. No.
08-1447-AA (Dist. Or. 7/30/2009) presented such a
situation wherein several homeless individuals alleged that they were targeted for selective enforcement under this Oregon city's ordinance and policy
to prohibit " camping " in public parks and places. In
their civil rights class action lawsuit, these homeless
plaintiffs alleged the City had violated their " rights
to be free from cruel and unusual punishment under the Eighth Amendment " because the City's " enforcement of no-camping and temporary structure
ordinances essentially criminalizes the status of being homeless. "
Accordingly, the homeless plaintiffs in this case
petitioned the federal district court to declare the ordinance and policy unconstitutional and issue an injunction prohibiting its enforcement against homeless
individuals. In response, the City claimed plaintiffs
had failed to state a claim under the Eighth Amendment and filed a motion to dismiss plaintiffs' lawsuit.

STACEY VAN DE GRAEFF / FLICKR

Facts of the Case
Under the challenged ordinance, the Portland City
Code (PCC) made it unlawful " for any person to
camp in or upon any public property or public right
of way " unless otherwise authorized by the PCC or
the mayor in " emergency circumstances " (PCC §
14A.50.020(B)). " To camp " was defi ned as " to set
up, or to remain in or at a campsite, for the purpose
of establishing or maintaining a temporary place
to live " ( § 14A.50.020 (A) (1)). " Campsite " was defi ned as " any place where any bedding, sleeping
bag, or other sleeping matter, or any stove or fi re
is placed, established, or maintained, whether or

not such place incorporates the use of any
tent, lean-to, shack, or any
other structure " (§ 14A.50.020 (A) (2)). A violation of
§ 14A.50.020 was punishable by a fi ne not to exceed
$100 and a term of imprisonment not to exceed 30
days (§ 14A.50.020(C)).
It was also unlawful " to erect, install, place, leave,
or set up any type of permanent or temporary fi xture or structure of any material(s) in or upon nonpark public property or public right-of-way without
a permit or other authorization from the City " PCC
§ 14A.50.050(A). Any such fi xture or structure was
deemed a " public nuisance, " and " [i]n addition to
other remedies provided by law, " may be " summarily " abated by the police (§ 14A.50.050(B)).
In addition, an Executive Order issued by the
Chief of Police addressed the " cleanup " of " established campsites " by police officers. A " camp
clean-up " was " any organized, prearranged operation by or on behalf of the Bureau to remove illegal
campers, camps, or camp structures from an established campsite. "
" Established campsites " were " locations where
a camp structure such as a hut, lean-to, or tent is set
up for the purpose of maintaining a temporary place
to live and exists on public property. " Under the Executive Order, officers were required to post a 24hour notice prior to cleanup of the campsite and to
notify JOIN-a local agency that provides services to
homeless persons-of the pending cleanup. Campsites located on private property or public rights of
way or those constituting " public health hazards " did
not require 24 hours notice prior to cleanup.

w w w . N R p a . o R G 				M A R C H 	 2 0 1 1 	 	 	parks

& Recreation

33



March 2011 - Parks & Recreation

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of March 2011 - Parks & Recreation

March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 1
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 2
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 3
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 4
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 5
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 6
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 7
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 8
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 9
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 10
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 11
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 12
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 13
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 14
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 15
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 16
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 17
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 18
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 19
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 20
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 21
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 22
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 23
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 24
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 25
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 26
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 27
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 28
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 29
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 30
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 31
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 32
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 33
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 34
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 35
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 36
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 37
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 38
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 39
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 40
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 41
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 42
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 43
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 44
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 45
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 46
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 47
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 48
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 49
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 50
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 51
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 52
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 53
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 54
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 55
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 56
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 57
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 58
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 59
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 60
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 61
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 62
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 63
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 64
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 65
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 66
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 67
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 68
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 69
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 70
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 71
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 72
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 73
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 74
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 75
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 76
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 77
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 78
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 79
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 80
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 81
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 82
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 83
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 84
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 85
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 86
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 87
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 88
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 89
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 90
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 91
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 92
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 93
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 94
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 95
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 96
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 97
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 98
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 99
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 100
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 101
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 102
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 103
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 104
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 105
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 106
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 107
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 108
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 109
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 110
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 111
March 2011 - Parks & Recreation - 112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2009
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com