March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 34

L AW R E V I E W

We turn your big ideas into unique aquatic
play solutions that will make your park the
envy of communities everywhere. Create
beautiful landscape designs and bring
families together for fun, stress-free play.
All through the wonder of water.

World leader in aquatic play solutions
with over 5,000 installations worldwide

vortex-intl.com ‡ 1.877.586.7839
info@vortex-intl.com

32

Parks & Recreation

| M A R C H 2 0 1 4 | W W W. N R PA . O R G

" would conflict with the purpose of the recreational user
statute, " i.e., " to encourage owners of premises suitable
for recreational pursuits to open their land to public use
without fear of liability. " As characterized by the court,
" [r]emoving the protection of immunity would undoubtedly cause property owners to restrict recreational use of their
properties, or close them entirely, from fear of liability. "
Further, when the property was " viewed as a whole, " the
court found the " essential character of the property " had
not been altered to " something other than an outdoor property on which outdoor recreation activities occur. " The state
supreme court, therefore, concluded immunity under the
state RUS would not " fall away " based on the " purported
defect " in this case, i.e., " an object resembling a railroad tie. "
The park in this case is an outdoor property with trees and
grass and is open to the public free of charge for picnicking
and sporting activities, such as sledding, baseball, soccer and
basketball, as well as other recreational activities that inevitably occur in parks, such as tinkering with a model plane,
reading poetry or jogging...When viewing the park property
" as a whole, " the existence of a single railroad tie does not
change the essential character of the park to something other
than a property that is open for recreational use.
Having found " Pauley entered the park free of charge
and engaged in the recreational activity of snow sledding
on the date of his injury, " the state supreme court, therefore, held " the city was not liable for his injuries because it
owes no duty to recreational users to ensure that the park
is safe for entry or use. "
In response to any criticism that this decision " reaches
a harsh result, " the state supreme court noted the traditional and appropriate role of judiciary was to defer to the
stated terms of the state RUS and " not create an exception by judicial fiat. "
[T]he language of the recreational user statute is plain: A
property owner owes no duty to a recreational user to keep the
property safe for entry or use. Creating an exception to this
immunity is a policy decision that comes within the purview
of the General Assembly, not the courts. The General Assembly understands how to draft laws that contain exceptions, but
included no exception that can be applied in this case.
The state supreme court, therefore, affirmed the judgment of the lower courts, which had held the city was immune from any liability under the state RUS.
James C. Kozlowski, J.D., Ph.D., is an attorney and Associate
Professor at George Mason University (jkozlows@gmu.edu). Webpage
with link to Law Review articles archive (1982 to present): http://mason.
gmu.edu/~jkozlows.



March 2014 - Parks & Recreation

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of March 2014 - Parks & Recreation

March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 1
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 2
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 3
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 4
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 5
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 6
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 7
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 8
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 9
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 10
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 11
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 12
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 13
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 14
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 15
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 16
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 17
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 18
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 19
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 20
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 21
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 22
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 23
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 24
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 25
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 26
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 27
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 28
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 29
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 30
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 31
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 32
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 33
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 34
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 35
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 36
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 37
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 38
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 39
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 40
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 41
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 42
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 43
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 44
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 45
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 46
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 47
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 48
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 49
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 50
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 51
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 52
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 53
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 54
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 55
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 56
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 57
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 58
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 59
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 60
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 61
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 62
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 63
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 64
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 65
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 66
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 67
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 68
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 69
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 70
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 71
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 72
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 73
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 74
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 75
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 76
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 77
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 78
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 79
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 80
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 81
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 82
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 83
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 84
March 2014 - Parks & Recreation - 85
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/october-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/september-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/august-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/july-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/june-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/may-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/april-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/march-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/february-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/january-2010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/december-2009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nrpa/ParksRecreationMagazine/november-2009
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com