For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 57

Community-Based Psychological
Services for Justice-Involved
Individuals:
The Drexel
Reentry Project
T
he process of returning to the community following
incarceration-reentry-has received increasing attention
in recent years. Both legislative and judicial decision
makers have observed how interventions and support through
the reentry process can promote responsible living and decrease
criminal recidivism risk.1
This increased interest in reentry services
and alternatives to incarceration has resulted in the growth of
specialized interventions such as problem-solving courts, which
generally operate at the pre- or post-adjudication stage, with
considerable evidence for the effectiveness of drug courts and
mental health courts in particular.2
Problem-solving courts with
a focus on reentry often utilize graduated sanctions and positive
reinforcement, and feature collaboration between the court,
prosecution, defense, and probation services.3
Reentry courts also
often partner with local organizations/universities to provide
civil legal support (e.g., assistance with parking tickets, identity
theft), social services (e.g., housing, employment), and education
services (e.g., GED programs, vocational training).4
Some reentry
courts also contract with community partners to provide therapy
and medication management services to individuals returning
from incarceration.
The demand for community-based treatment programs that
target reentry needs has grown amidst the judicial system's
increased prioritization of rehabilitation over punishment
in community-based dispositions.5
Partnerships between the
criminal justice system and mental health providers have increased
access to care that simultaneously protects the community
from the consequences of recidivism, while addressing needs
that improve the quality of life for justice-involved individuals.
Interventions informed by the Risk-Need-Responsivity model
(RNR) are particularly relevant to balancing the different goals of
the justice system (e.g., retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation).
Interventions designed using the RNR model match treatment
intensity to offender risk level (risk), match interventions to
risk-relevant needs (need) and utilize interventions that are
individualized and empirically supported (responsivity).6
The
third component of the RNR model, responsivity, is especially
relevant to therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing risk
of recidivism. The strengths, motivation, personality, learning
styles, social and cultural characteristics, and abilities of each
offender are relevant to the rehabilitative success of the
intervention provided.7
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)based
interventions are effective at reducing recidivism among
The Drexel Reentry Project
The Drexel Reentry Project (DRP) provides risk-relevant mental
health services to individuals recently released from federal
incarceration who participate in a specialized reentry court within
the Eastern District of Pennsylvania (Supervision to Aid Reentry, or
STAR). The eligibility requirements of the STAR program include
a high risk of recidivism and the presence of needs relevant to
community reintegration (e.g., stable employment, prosocial
companions). Participation in STAR is voluntary and entails
more intensive supervision; participants meet with a supervising
federal judge on a bi-weekly basis, in addition to adhering to
general supervision requirements. The STAR program is designed
to be completed within 52 weeks, with completion dependent
upon adherence to supervision requirements and completion
of programs provided by STAR court (including the DRP). Some
participants may complete the STAR program prior to 52 weeks,
others may take longer, and many clients continue to utilize
services provided by the STAR program even after completion.
Incentives for participating in the STAR program include access to
reentry-related resources, and up to one year reduction of their
supervised release date upon successful completion. In addition
to services provided by the DRP, STAR participants can participate
in educational programs, vocational training, career services,
employment referrals, financial literacy training, free legal
services provided by local universities, parenting courses, anger
Vol. 8, Issue 3 l For The Defense 57
justice-involved populations, especially when informed by RNR.8
Such CBT-based interventions focus on challenging patterns in
thinking that contribute to continued engagement in crime.9
Individuals' thinking about themselves, others, and situations is
informed by lived experiences, prior learning, and environmental
considerations. Many justice-involved individuals present with
thoughts and beliefs that may have been adaptive in violent,
unpredictable environments (e.g., impoverished communities
and prison) but contribute to poor decision making that decreases
stability and success following release from incarceration. CBT
interventions that incorporate cognitive restructuring, anger
management, effective problem solving, and communication
skills have been associated with reductions in reoffending
risk. Community-based programs vary considerably in terms of
populations served and interventions utilized, thereby increasing
access to care amongst difficult-to-reach individuals often most
in need of mental health services.
Heidi Zapotocky
Kellie Wiltsie
Chelsea Jackson
and Kirk Heilbrun

For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3

Contents
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 1
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 2
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - Contents
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 4
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 5
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 6
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 7
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 8
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 9
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 10
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 11
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 12
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 13
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 14
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 15
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 16
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 17
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 18
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 19
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 20
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 21
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 22
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 23
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 24
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 25
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 26
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 27
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 28
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 29
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 30
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 31
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 32
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 33
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 34
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 35
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 36
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 37
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 38
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 39
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 40
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 41
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 42
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 43
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 44
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 45
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 46
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 47
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 48
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 49
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 50
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 51
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 52
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 53
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 54
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 55
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 56
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 57
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 58
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 59
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 60
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 61
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 62
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 63
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 64
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 65
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 66
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 67
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 68
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 69
For the Defense - Vol. 8, Issue 3 - 70
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol9_issue2_2024
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol9_issue1_2024
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol8_issue4_2023
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol8_issue3_2023
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol8_issue2_2023
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol8_issue1_2023
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol7_issue4_2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol7_issue3_2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol7_issue2_2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol7_issue1_2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol6_issue4_2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol6_issue3_2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol6_issue2_2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol6_issue1_2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol5_issue4_2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol5_issue3_2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol5_issue2_2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol5_issue1_2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol4_issue4_2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol4_issue3_2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol4_issue2_2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol4_issue1_2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol3_issue4_2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol3_issue3_2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol3_issue2_2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol3_issue1_2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pacdl/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol2_issue4_2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pacdl/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol2_issue3_2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pacdl/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol2_issue2_2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pacdl/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol2_issue1_2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol1_issue4_2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol1_issue3_2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol1_issue2_2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/PACDL/FORTHEDEFENSE_vol1_issue1_2016
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com