Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 40

Space Exploration

q RED PLANET TEST China's Mars spacecraft enters its space environment testing in this image released in October 2019.

Mercury

Sun

Venus
Earth

469219 Kamo'oalewa

Mars

p TARGET ASTEROID China's planned Zheng He spacecraft will visit
the asteroid 469219 Kamo'oalewa, which crosses Earth's orbit. After it
delivers its samples to Earth, it will continue outward via Mars to fly by
Comet 133P/Elst-Pizarro in the main belt.

But other planned projects will continue forays into offEarth astronomy. Three of these will focus on high-energy
phenomena:
The Space-based Multi-band Astronomical Variable
Objects Monitor, produced in collaboration with the French
Space Agency, is a gamma-ray, X-ray, and visible-light observatory. Following launch in 2021, it will study the intensely
powerful gamma-ray bursts thought to come from the death
of certain kinds of stars.
Meanwhile, the 1,400-kilogram Einstein Probe should
launch by the end of 2022 to look for short-lived, highenergy sources. These include gamma-ray bursts, supernovae, magnetars, and the electromagnetic counterparts of
gravitational-wave events. With a large field of view, it will
also monitor variable objects across the sky, such as accreting
supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies, and carry
out an all-sky survey.
A third mission, the Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory, is also scheduled for 2022 and will study solar flares and
coronal mass ejections.
If all this weren't enough, the Xuntian 2-meter space
telescope should launch in the mid-2020s. The Hubble-class
instrument is designed to co-orbit with China's planned
modular space station and dock with it for occasional maintenance and repair.
Speaking at the Global Space Exploration Conference in
Beijing in 2017, Ji Wu, then director of the National Space
Science Center that oversaw China's first space science missions, explained how he sees the country's growing role in
space. China, he says, has made a major contribution to
the global economy. Now it will (once again) contribute to
scientific knowledge with a new decade of exploration and
discovery.

¢ ANDREW JONES is a space journalist based in Finland who
reports on China's space-related activities in particular. Follow
him on Twitter for insights into a far-reaching and expanding
space program: @AJ_FI.
40

JUNE 2 02 0 * SK Y & TELESCOPE

M A RS MISSION: CNSA; ORBITS: LE A H TISCIONE / S&T

team head. "This certainty gives the government the confidence for organizing future explore missions."
The next science missions weren't astronomy-related. Shijian 10 was a retrievable satellite experiment, which in 2016
tested the growth of mouse embryos in the microgravity environment of low-Earth orbit. Then the Quantum Experiments
at Space Scale, launched later that same year, made waves as
the first quantum science satellite. It used the phenomenon
of entanglement to test encrypted communications between
China and Austria.
The final mission of the set was the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), aka Insight, which launched in June
2017. Shortly after, it joined international follow-up observations of the GW170817 neutron star merger detected by
LIGO (S&T: Feb. 2018, p. 32), setting a strict upper limit on
X-rays produced by the event. In October 2019 the HXMT
team also investigated the accretion disks around black hole
and neutron star X-ray binaries. The observations verified a
decades-old theory that structural changes in the accretion
disks come from the radiation pressure of light. Since coming into operation, HXMT has returned more than 29 TB of
scientific data.
The successful launch of these four missions helped win
approval for a new batch of space-science projects that will
begin launching in 2021. Some of these have a strong terrestrial focus, such as the Water Cycle Observation and the
Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling Exploration missions. In addition, the Solar Wind Magnetosphere
Ionosphere Link Explorer, a space-weather observatory, is a
joint endeavor with the European Space Agency.



Sky & Telescope - June 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Sky & Telescope - June 2020

Contents
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - Cover1
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - Cover2
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 1
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - Contents
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 3
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 4
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 5
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 6
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 7
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 8
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 9
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 10
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 11
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 12
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 13
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 14
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 15
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 16
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 17
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 18
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 19
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 20
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 21
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 22
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 23
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 24
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 25
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 26
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 27
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 28
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 29
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 30
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 31
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 32
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 33
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 34
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 35
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 36
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 37
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 38
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 39
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 40
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 41
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 42
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 43
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 44
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 45
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 46
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 47
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 48
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 49
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 50
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 51
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 52
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 53
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 54
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 55
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 56
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 57
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 58
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 59
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 60
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 61
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 62
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 63
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 64
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 65
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 66
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 67
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 68
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 69
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 70
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 71
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 72
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 73
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 74
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 75
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 76
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 77
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 78
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 79
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 80
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 81
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 82
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 83
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - 84
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - Cover3
Sky & Telescope - June 2020 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_202012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_202011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_202010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_202009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_202008
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_202007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_202006
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_202005
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_202003
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_202002
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_202001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201908
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201906
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201905
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201903
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201902
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201808
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201807
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201806
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201805
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201803
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201802
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201712
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201711
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201710
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201709
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201707
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201706
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201705
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201704
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201703
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201702
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201701
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201612
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201611
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/newtrack/st_201612
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201610
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201609
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201608
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201606
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201605
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201604
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201603
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201602
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201601
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201512
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201511
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201510
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201509
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201508
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201507
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201505
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201504
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201503
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201502
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201501
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201412
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201411
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201410
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201409
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201408
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201407
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201406
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_mars
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201404
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201403
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201402
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201401
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201312
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201311
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201310
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201309
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201308
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201307
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201306
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201305
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201303
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201302
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201301
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201208
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201207
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201206
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201205
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201204
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201202
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201108
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201106
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201105
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201103
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201008
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201006
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201005
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201003
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201002
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aas/st_201001
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com