The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 2 - 17

Evolution of Alternative Dispute Resolution Practices

Almost 60 years later these professional
responsibilities remain, but research suggests
that traditional student conduct adjudication
processes, combined with (increasingly) harsh
sanctions, are ultimately counterproductive
(Clark, 2014; Lake, 2009). Some researchers argue that punitive sanctioning negatively
affects students as it labels them as delinquent
and increases the likelihood of future delinquency (Karp & Frank, 2015; Payne & Welch,
2013), if not also criminal incarceration (Payne
& Welch, 2013). In 2015, Karp concluded,

Only seven years earlier, the Spectrum
Model (Schrage & Thompson, 2008), which
was introduced at the 2008 Donald D. Gehring
Academy, had formally recognized ADR techniques as part of student conduct professionals' portfolio of approaches for addressing
misconduct.

Just as criminal justice officials have learned
they cannot incarcerate their way out of the
crime problem, campus conduct officers know
they cannot suspend their way out of their
student conduct problems. Restorative justice
offers a different approach that is educational
for the student offender while also meeting

The Spectrum Model (see Figure 1) posited
that most student misconduct-including misconduct in residence halls-can be addressed
using an appropriate ADR strategy. Although
formal adjudication remained as one option
in the model, eight other resolution options
such as restorative justice were identified for

the needs of the harmed parties and the
institution. (p. 8)

THE SPECTRUM MODEL

Figure 1

INFORMAL

ADJUDICATION (FORMAL HEARING)

ADJUDICATION (INFORMAL)

SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY

RESTORATIVE PRACTICE

MEDIATION

FACILITATE DIALOGUE

CONFLICT COACHING

DIALOGUE/DEBATE/DISUSSION

NO CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

Spectrum of Resolution Options

FORMAL

Note: Figure developed by Schrage and Thompson (2008) and used with permission.

V O L U M E 4 5 , N O. 2 * 2 0 1 9

17



The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 2

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 2

Contents
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 2 - Intro
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 2 - Cover1
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The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 2 - Contents
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