The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 2 - 18

Amy N. Miele * Florence A. Hamrick

The Spectrum Model ranges from
informal resolution procedures,
with very little involvement of
student conduct professionals
and the possibility to avoid a
discipline record for the student,
to very formal procedures
requiring extensive administrative
involvement warranting a discipline
record for the student(s) found
responsible.

consideration and implementation (Schrage &
Thompson, 2009).
The Spectrum Model ranges from informal
resolution procedures, with very little involvement of student conduct professionals and the
possibility to avoid a discipline record for the
student, to very formal procedures requiring
extensive administrative involvement warranting a discipline record for the student(s) found
responsible (Schrage & Thompson, 2009).
According to Schrage and Thompson (2009),
soliciting student input when determining
the appropriate approach can maximize their
empowerment and investment in the student
conduct process. For example, a more informal process may foster students' comfort and
willingness to be candid and reflective within
a more inclusive environment. Specifically,
according to Schrage and Thompson, since
college students encompass varieties of "social
18

identities, conflict styles, and cultural norms"
(p. 73), the student conduct process should
include options that maximize inclusion. Although many residential conduct offices may
disproportionately or exclusively implement
formal adjudication procedures, techniques
such as those in the Spectrum Model offer
myriad alternatives that ensure due process,
promote educational opportunities for accused
students, and also demonstrate residence life's
commitment to social justice (Martin-Ferguson, Lendof, & Simpson, 2018).

ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE
RESOLUTION
Although forms of alternative dispute resolution have existed over time, and restorative
justice, for example, has been utilized in Native
American cultures for many years (Hand,
Hankes, & House, 2012), ADR became more
salient in the Western adversarial system with
the 1990 passage of the Civil Justice Reform
Act. This act encouraged federal district courts
to develop programs utilizing alternative
dispute resolution (Bowden, 2007; Waryold &
Lancaster, 2008), and the 1990 article by Pitts
and Waryold on sanction enhancement groups
piloted one ADR implementation specifically
in a residence life context.
In 1990, more than 1,200 ADR programs
were being offered by state courts in the wake of
the Civil Justice Reform Act, with Florida (also
the site of Pitts and Waryold's study) having
the most extensive court mediation and ADR
system (Stipanowich, 2004). Subsequently,
the 1998 Alternative Dispute Resolution Act
required that ADR be an option in civil actions
(Stipanowich, 2004), which further heightened
the popularity of various ADR strategies and

THE JOURNAL OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENT HOUSING



The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 2

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 2

Contents
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 2 - Intro
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 2 - Cover1
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The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 2 - Contents
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The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 2 - Cover3
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