The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 33

A Framework for Increasing Housing and Residence Life Staff Capacity and Confidence

and take their learning in divergent directions
depending on the interests and style of each
student. The means and ways students employ
to reach end results, they argued, was just as
important as the result itself. Regardless of
method, one finding remains clear: Student
learning must be front and center, and the
role of professional staff educators is critical
to the success of efforts to help students make
meaning of their experience and reach desired
educational outcomes.

The Role of Learning Science in the
Curriculum Model
Student development theory has been established as an important competency for student
affairs professionals (ACPA & National Association of Student Personnel Administrators
[NASPA], 2015; Renn & Jessup-Anger, 2008).
However, Learning Reconsidered I and II encouraged student affairs professionals to also
consider the science behind learning, or what
they have "learned about learning" (Keeling,
2004; Keeling, 2006). These documents cite
researchers such as Jones and McEwan (2000)
and Mezirow (2000) that described learning
as interconnected with personal development;
a result of the consistent process of gathering
and filtering new information and practicing
this knowledge in new environments; and
capable of transforming the way students view
the world.
Ambrose et al. (2010) supported these
ideas, arguing that learning is a process. Learning requires a change in knowledge, belief, attitudes, or behaviors, and is a direct result of
how students experience their environment.
How Learning Works: 7 Research-Based Prin-

ciples for Smart Teaching (Ambrose et al., 2010),
presented a series of learning principles with
significant implications for those seeking to
implement Residential Curriculums. The
principles included the concept that prior
knowledge affects learning; the concept that
the way students organize knowledge affects
learning; student motivation; helping students develop mastery; creating opportunities
for feedback and practice; the role of course
climate in learning; and the process of developing students to be self-directed learners.
Learning principles presented in How
Learning Works (Ambrose et al., 2010) are
tangible and largely translatable to learning
beyond the classroom. For instance, in developing lesson plans it is important to consider
ways to appeal to students' intrinsic motivations to learn and to ensure learning experiences allow opportunities for students to apply
skills.
Another helpful framework for the curricular approach is Backward Design. Backward
Design is a framework that provides structure to curriculum, assessment, and instruction with focus on achievement of learning
outcomes (Wiggins & McTighe, 2005, 2008).
This framework stresses the importance of designing educational experiences starting from
the endpoint of what students will learn. Beginning with learning outcomes, the Backward
Design process asks educators to first identify
the desired learning, then design assessment
measures that demonstrate success, and at
the end of the process, design the instruction
techniques most likely to achieve the initial
outcomes (Wiggins & McTighe, 2008). Fassett
and Kimmel (2017) identified Backward

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The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3

Contents
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - Intro
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