The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 50

R. Jason Lynch

help. The I can factor illustrates self-efficacy
and can be directly involved in how practitioners view themselves. This factor may also
serve to empower practitioners to develop specific skills in which they do not feel competent.

I Have
The I have factor centers on practitioners'
perceived and received social support. These
social factors may serve to prevent feelings
of isolation as well as serve as sources of normalization for crisis management practice and
internal crisis-support response. Practitioners
questioning their level of social support may
ask themselves: Do I have another person
outside my family I can trust? Do I have people
who encourage me? Do I have good role
models? Do I have access to the health, education, and social services that I need?
Taken together, the model aims to emphasize the interplay between the three factors
with each factor informing the other two. Palma-Garcia and Hombrados-Mendieta (2014)
found that social workers demonstrated a
natural gradual development within the I am
factor as they became more experienced in the
field. Their experience seemed to translate to a
more concrete self-concept. This did not hold
true for the I can and I have factors. In particular, social workers reported a lack of overall
perceived social support. While the I have and
I can factors have not been studied outright
within the context of college student affairs
and residential life, some studies have reported
perceived lack of social support (Hensel, Ruiz,
Finney, & Dewa, 2015) or lack of self-efficacy
(Lynch & Glass, 2018) as factors related to the
development of burnout, secondary trauma,
and compassion fatigue.

50

The I am, I can, I have model of
fostering resilience is useful in the
sense that it is straightforward and
can be easily implemented within
residential life practice.

USING I AM, I CAN, I HAVE
IN PRACTICE
The I am, I can, I have model of fostering resilience is useful in the sense that it is straightforward and can be easily implemented within
residential life practice. In the following sections, ways in which the model could be used
at various levels within the profession are
briefly identified.

Internal Factors (I Am and I Can)
Self-efficacy and self-concept may be addressed in several ways by individual practitioners, supervisors, and departmental
leadership. Perhaps most importantly, training
and education to increase awareness of signs
and symptoms of the potential negative impact
of trauma support work should be a regular
part of practitioner training and professional
development. Several models for training exist
including Stress Inoculation Training, a cognitive-behavioral training involving a three-step
[education, training, and exposure] approach
demonstrated to be effective in mediating the
impact of secondary trauma and enhancing
coping skills (Bercier, 2013). Sansbury et al.
(2015) also underscored the utility of practitioners creating self-care action plans to document planned behavior changes, list resources,
identify internal signs of stress, and anticipate

THE JOURNAL OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENT HOUSING



The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3

Contents
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - Intro
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - Cover1
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