The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 58

Pamela Altmaier

responding to bias-related incidents (LePeau,
Morgan, Zimmerman, Snipes, & Marcotte,
2016). Even with these reporting protocols,
many students are not disclosing their experiences (Sue, 2010).

Types of Bias-Related Incidents
This study defines the term bias-related incident as an action based on "a preformed
negative opinion or attitude toward a group
of persons based on their race, gender, religion, disability, sexual orientation or ethnicity/
national origin." (U.S. Department of Education, 2011, p. 6). Students from historically
marginalized populations experience a range
of bias-related incidents including written
derogatory terms (McKinney, 2005; Rankin,
2003; Solorazano, Ceja, & Yosso, 2000); graffiti (McKinney, 2005; Rankin, 2003); racially
themed parties (Hunt, 1997; Smith et al.,
2007); verbal threats (Harper et al., 2011;
Harwood et al., 2012; McKinney, 2005; Rankin,
2003); and even physical assault (McKinney,
2005; Rankin, 2003). The occurrence of biasrelated incidences can happen as often as daily
(Anderson, Cannon, Perez, & Moore, 1998;
Swim et al., 2003), which Swim et al. (2003)
characterize as "everyday racism" (p. 40).
"Everyday racism" refers to the idea that students of color experience prejudice and biased
behaviors from others regularly or in routine
(Swim et al., 2003).
Students from historically marginalized
groups generally encounter bias-related incidents throughout their collegiate experiences
(Harper et al., 2011; Harwood et al., 2012;
Rankin, 2003). One example illustrates that
students of color are asked to leave their backpacks outside the residential dining spaces,
whereas White-identifying students are not
58

This study defines the term biasrelated incident as an action based
on "a preformed negative opinion or
attitude toward a group of persons
based on their race, gender, religion,
disability, sexual orientation or
ethnicity/national origin."

asked to follow the same policy (Harper et al.,
2011). Another recorded incident describes
that students of color have difficulty holding
leadership roles, but when these students
are successful in leadership roles, the advising staff member expresses surprise that the
student is able to complete tasks (Johnson,
2003). Another account told the story of a
student of color on a campus tour. During the
tour, the student of color was told that he was
likely to live in the lower-end residence halls,
or as the guides said "minority central," "the
projects," "beehive," and "Cabrini Green"
(Harwood et al., 2012, p. 167). Bias-related incidents that target students of color like the ones
described here are well-documented and have
been shown to have a large impact on students
(Siseros, 2011; Rankin, 2003).

Effects on Students
Students that experience bias-related incidents
may endure emotional, psychological, and
physical harm (Beemyn, 2003). The emotional, psychological, and physical harm includes,
but is not limited to, feeling vulnerable, fearing
for safety, depression, helplessness, anxiety,

THE JOURNAL OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENT HOUSING



The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3

Contents
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - Intro
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - Cover1
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - Cover2
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 3
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 4
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 5
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 6
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 7
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 8
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - Contents
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 10
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 11
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 12
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 13
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 14
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 15
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 16
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 17
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 18
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 19
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 20
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 21
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 22
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 23
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 24
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 25
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 26
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 27
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 28
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 29
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 30
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 31
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 32
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 33
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 34
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 35
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 36
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 37
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 38
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 39
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 40
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 41
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 42
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 43
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 44
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 45
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 46
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 47
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 48
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 49
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 50
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 51
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 52
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 53
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 54
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 55
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 56
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 57
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 58
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 59
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 60
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 61
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 62
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 63
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 64
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 65
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 66
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 67
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 68
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 69
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 70
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 71
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 72
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 73
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 74
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 75
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 76
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 77
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - 78
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - Cover3
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 45, No. 3 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/acuho-i/acuho/journal_vol48no2
https://www.nxtbook.com/acuho-i/acuho/journal_vol48no1
https://www.nxtbook.com/acuho-i/acuho/journal_vol47no3
https://www.nxtbook.com/acuho-i/acuho/journal_vol47no2
https://www.nxtbook.com/acuho-i/acuho/journal_vol47no1
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol46no2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol46no3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol46no1
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol45no2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol45no3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol45no1
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol44no3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol44no2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol44no1
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol43no3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol43no2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol43no1
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol42no2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol42no3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol41no2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/acuho/journal_vol40no2
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com