The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 2 - 93

Marvin Beamer

allowed. Needed controls for group living are
impersonally monitored. Additionally, "the
pressure in this setting is the confrontation of
the student with the intense peer-culture experience, to make testing out occur . . . to insist
on exposure to others."14
Sanford, in a comparison of earlier years
with contemporary activities, sees a radical
change in the American outlook. The predominant "ethic" is not one of hard work-it is of
psychological security. The ideal to be attained is
a sense of community, internal well-being, and
self-realization. As Lou Rawls sings, "No longer
do they want to go along with the program just
because everybody say [sic] it's right."10
On a differing dimension, that of student
government, Nidorf senses that community
within student bodies is minimal. "The organization of students into a community is
hampered by the structural characteristics of
college life."8 The "sandbox" politics of a oneyear term for student body president and the
resulting lack of viable platforms handicaps a
concerted effort to provide leadership.
Comparisons that bridge spans of time
and those that deal with small rather than
large centers of higher education are valuable.
Sharper distinctions and certainly more colorful examples are those suggested by Robert
Ardrey. His nayou, society of inward antagonism, mirrors the residence hall setting. The
African kob's putting green gives insight into a
visiting policy that "takes sex off the backroads
and motels and brings it 'home'." The wolf that
urinates to mark the boundaries of his territory
is emulated by residents who put signs on their
doors and posters on their walls. An even more
graphic example of substitute behavior is that
of the stickleback, a fish which, when enraged
92

Four Notions of Community

by one of its peers, will vigorously bury its
nose in the sand. Frustrated, disappointed, and
scared student populations have "acted out"
their aggressions on countless elevator doors,
glass coverings for fire extinguisher cabinets,
and plaster walls.

The ideal to be attained is a sense

2.	 Chickering, Arthur W. Education and Iden-

tity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969.
3.	

Gores, Harold B. The American Campus-
1980. In Campus 1980. Ed. Alvin Eurich. New
York: Dell Publishing Company. Inc., 1968.

4.	 Gregory, Dick. Speech at the University of
Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado. November 16, 1971.
5.	

Hadden. Jeffrey K. The private generation. Psychology Today, October, 1969.

of community, internal well-being,

6.	 Kavanaugh, Robert E. The grim generation. Psychology Today, October, 1968.

and self-realization.

7.	

Madison points out that Nevitt Sanford
said "people do not change unless they are
challenged by a situation in which the devices
they already possess cannot be used to adapt
to the situation . . . One such challenge occurs
when the realities of his new environment decisively contradict the student's expectations
of himself."7 Everyone gains comfort, at least
for a time, by performing familiar acts. It is
true development to stretch the personal field
of awareness and to strengthen coping behavior.
The super-industrial society that Toffler says
we are heading toward14 requires a voluntary
but strong network of human interaction in
order to accommodate developmental growth.

Madison, Peter. The campus: Coming of age at
college. Psychology Today, October, 1971.

8.	 Nidorf, Louis J. Community mental health
model applied to student personnel work.
Journal of College Student Personnel, January,
1970.
9.	 Pruitt, Wilton. College Students, Their Community, and Their Activities. In College Student
Personnel Work in the Years Ahead. Ed. Gordon
Klopf. Washington: American College Personnel Association, 1966.

10.	 Rawls, Lou. "Just Like A Natural Man." HebbBarron. Hollywood: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer,
1971.
11.	 Riker, Harold C. College Housing as Learning
Centers . ACPA monograph. Student Personnel
Series No. 3, 1965.
12.	 Sanford, Nevitt. The College Student of Today
and Tomorrow. NASPA, V October, 1967.
13.	 _______. The College Student of 1980. In
Campus 1980. Ed. Alvin Eurich. New York: Dell
Publishing Company, Inc., 1968.
14.	 Segal, Stanley J. Implications of residential
setting for development during college. Journal
of College Student Personnel, September, 1967.
15.	 Toffler, Alvin, Future Shock. New York: Random
House, 1970.
16.	 Western Interstate Commission for Higher
Education. Community Mental Health Services.
November, 1971.
17.	 Yamamoto, Kaoru. Healthy students in the
college environment. Personnel and Guidance
Journal, June, 1970.

Four notions about community! Each
must receive the attention of professionals
if residence halls are to achieve a sense of
community.

REFERENCES
1.	

Ardrey, Robert. The Territorial Imperative. New
York: Atheneum, 1966.

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Contents
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 2 - Intro
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