The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 3 - 32

David J. Nguyen, Jodi L. Linley, Michael R. Woodford, Kristen A. Renn

ed encountering lower levels of heterosexist
discrimination compared to their peers on
campuses that enumerate only sexual orientation (Woodford, Kulick et al., 2018). Importantly, this study also found that lower levels
of discrimination were associated with higher
levels of psychological wellbeing (Woodford,
Kulick et al., 2018).
Although living on campus is generally
lauded as a positive college experience (Blimling, 1993, 1999), research consistently illustrated the ways in which LGBTQ+ students
experience university housing as sites of oppression (Fanucce & Taub, 2010; Kortegast,
2017). In university housing, LGBTQ+ students
face judgment and harassment based on peers'
prejudices, stereotypes, and religious beliefs
which in turn can foster negative perceptions of
campus housing by LGBTQ+ students (Fanucce
& Taub, 2010). In a recent study, LGBTQ+ students identified similar challenges in campus
housing including harassment, hostility, and
policing of behavior from peers (Kortegast,
2017). Students in Kortegast's (2017) study also
discussed concerns about the housing assignment process and single-sex university housing
assignments for trans* students. A lack of gender-inclusive housing can increase the stressors
trans* students face (Woodford, Joslin, Pitcher,
& Renn, 2017).
Research on LGBTQ+ housing policies,
such as gender-inclusive housing, is sparse
but gaining momentum (Krum et al., 2013;
Marine, Wagner, & Nicolazzo, 2019; Nicolazzo, 2017; Nicolazzo, Marine, & Wagner,
2018; Taub et al., 2016; Willoughby, Larsen,
& Carroll, 2012; Woodford et al., 2017). Bilodeau (2009) argued that a pervasive genderism, which is the belief that only two genders
32

exist and only correspond with sex assigned at
birth, occurs within university housing to the
detriment of non-binary and trans* students.
For example, single-sex floors and bathrooms
exist on many campuses. Krum et al. (2013)
lamented that campus housing is "often the
most difficult [campus space] to amend" (p.
65). Willoughby et al. (2012) documented the
availability of gender-neutral housing policies
at 100 universities in the United States with
the largest enrollments that offered campus
housing; however, only 16 of 100 had official
policies for gender-neutral housing, while
three allowed gender-neutral housing on an
as-needed basis. In this study, we extend this
line of inquiry by exploring the availability and
awareness of antidiscrimination and LGBTQ+
housing policies across institutional types.

Theoretical Framework
Bronfenbrenner's (1993) ecological systems
theory guided the present study. This theory
suggests that researchers studying human development need to consider more than "direct
observation" of individuals in a single setting,
and that "examination of multi-person
systems of interaction not limited to a single
setting and must take into account aspects
of the environment beyond the immediate
situation containing subject" are needed (p.
21). Bronfenbrenner's (1993) theory involves
interactions among four interrelated components: person-process-context-time (PPCT).
The developing person is at the center of the
model, situated within context. The engagement persons have within their context constitutes process. Finally, time considers the
role of sociocultural shifts in the proximal
and distal environments. How individuals
respond to and engage with their environ-

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The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 3

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 3

Contents
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 3 - Intro
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