The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 3 - 52

Zachary R. Blackmon, Robert M. O'Hara, Jordan W. Viars

scales found in this study. The subscales (interpersonal and environmental) served as the
independent variables and students' sense of
belonging, as measured by the PSUM, served
as the dependent variable.
Analysis indicated that the perception of
being targeted by interpersonal LGBQ microaggressions significantly predicted sense of
belonging, F (1,153) = 13.25, p < .01. This significant finding yielded a R2 of .08, which is
considered a medium-sized effect according
to Cohen (1988). Furthermore, the regression
equation indicated that an increase in individuals' perceptions of being targeted by interpersonal LGBQ microaggressions decreased their
sense of belonging, (Sense of Belonging = 3.76-
0.11 (Interpersonal LGBQ Microaggressions), p<
.001). The second regression analysis indicated that students' perceptions of being targeted
by environmental LGBQ microaggressions
significantly predicted sense of belonging, F
(1,153) = 17.64, p < .01. A R2 of .10 indicated a
medium-size effect according to Cohen (1988).
The regression equation indicated that an increase in individuals' perceptions of being
targeted by environmental LGBQ microaggressions decreased sense of belonging, Sense
of Belonging = 3.85 - 0.12 (Environmental LGBQ
Microaggressions), p < .001.
In addition to examining if microaggressions predicted sense of belonging in students,
researchers explored the possibility of students'
sexual identity development as a moderator
of the relationship between sense of belonging and perception of microaggressions. Two
analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used
to examine this research question. The MoSIEC
was used as a factor in the ANCOVA, while
sense of belonging, as measured by the PSUM,
52

These results confirmed that
the significant negative relative
relationship between LGBQ
microaggressions and sense of
belonging holds true regardless of
where students are in their sexual
identity development.

was the dependent variable. The interpersonal
and environmental subscales of the LGBQ Microaggressions on Campus scale were used as
covariates in the ANCOVA. Two ANCOVAs
were conducted using the same logic with the
regression analyses (Woodford, Chonody, et
al., 2015). After controlling for the effect from
perceptions of being targeted by interpersonal
LGBQ microaggressions, a non-statistically
significant difference in sense of belonging
between the various levels of the MoSIEC was
found, F (3,141) = 1.46, p = .227, partial η2 = .03.
The second ANCOVA, using perceptions of
being targeted by environmental microaggressions as a covariate, also yielded a non-statistically significant difference in sense of belonging
between the various levels of the MoSIEC.

DISCUSSION
Research highlighted the harmful experiences of microaggressions in higher education
(Young, Anderson, & Stewart, 2015) and microaggressions within residence halls (Harwood et
al., 2012). However, a lack of research examining the relationship between microaggressions
and student outcomes is missing. Research

THE JOURNAL OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENT HOUSING



The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 3

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 3

Contents
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 3 - Intro
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