The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 3 - 56

Zachary R. Blackmon, Robert M. O'Hara, Jordan W. Viars

and psychologically (Maslow, 1943; Rankin et
al., 2010; Strayhorn, 2012; Sue, 2010a, 2010b).
Unfortunately, as this study highlighted,
LGBQ individuals often do not feel safe, and
thus can never advance into resolving higherlevel needs which include a sense of belonging
(Maslow, 1943).
One of the challenges LGBQ students face
is heterosexim which can surface through
microaggressions. Heterosexism broadly as
well as microaggressions have been linked to
both negative outcomes and developmental
harm (Platt & Lenzen, 2013; Woodford et al.,
2012; Woodford, Kulick, et al., 2015; Nadal,
2013; Platt & Lenzen, 2013; Sue, 2010a, 2010b;
Wright & Wegner, 2012). Microaggressions
and the associated challenges can prevent individuals from developing an individual sense
of identity, which can impact overall sexual
identity development.
Students spend a significant portion of
their time at college in the residential environment, and those spaces are influential for
student development and success (Astin, 1977;
Evans et al., 2010; Flowers, 2004; Pascarella &
Terenzini, 2005; Platt & Lenzen, 2013; Woodford et al., 2012). Thus, microaggressions in
this space have the potential to be extremely
detrimental (Schroeder & Jackson, 1987).
Despite studies to understand the prevalence of microaggressions targeting LGBQ
individuals, a connection to student outcomes
has been lacking. The results from this study
highlighted that as students' perceptions of
being targeted by LGBQ microaggressions
increased their sense of belonging decreased.
However, the study also found that this was
only one of a possible multitude of predictors
for a sense of belonging and only one of the
56

various forms harassment and discrimination
can take against LGBQ people. Future research
is needed to more fully understand these
topics and the relationships between them. As
Harvey Milk (1977) said, "All young people,
regardless of sexual orientation or identity,
deserve a safe and supportive environment in
which to achieve their full potential" (as cited
in Mallon, 2010, p. 172).

REFERENCES
Abes, E.S., Jones, S.R., & McEwen, M.K. (2007).
Reconceptualizing the model of multiple dimensions of identity: The role of meaning-making
capacity in the construction of multiple identities. Journal of College Student Development 48(1),
1-22. DOI: 10.1353/csd.2007.0000.
Alkan, N. (2016). Psychological sense of university
membership: An adaptation study of the PSSM
Scale for Turkish university students. The Journal
of Psychology, 150(4), 431-449. doi:10.1080/0022
3980.2015.1087373
Astin, A. W. (1977). Four critical years. San Francisco,
CA: Jossey-Bass.
Blackmon, Z. R. (2018). Microaggressions, sense of
belonging, and sexual identity development among
LGBQ students: A moderation analysis (Doctoral
dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 10936203)
Blumenfeld, W. J. (2010). Introduction for Heterosexism. In M. Adams, W. J. Blumenfeld, C.
Castaneda, H. W. Hackman, M. L. Peters, & X.
Zuniga (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social
justice (pp. 373-379). New York, NY: Routledge.
Bowen, A. M., & Bourgeois, M. J. (2001). Attitudes
toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual college students: The contribution of pluralistic ignorance,
dynamic social impact, and contact theories.
Journal of American College Health, 50(2), 91-96.
Brandon, A., Hirt, J. B., & Cameron, T. (2008).
Where you live influences who you know: Differences in student interaction based on residence
hall design. Journal of College & University Student

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The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 3

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 3

Contents
The Journal of College and University Student Housing - Volume 46, No. 3 - Intro
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