American Oil and Gas Reporter - November 2016 - 42

FIGURE 5
Three-Dimensional Depiction of First Four Frac Stages
Stage 4

Stage 3

Stage 2

Stage 1

Wellbore Path
A fracture model was developed using
logs from a vertical pilot well located
2,000 feet west-southwest of the subject
well. A horizontal lateral had been drilled
and completed from the pilot hole of the
reference well. The next step was using
the stress profile constructed to model
the 14 frac stages pumped in the lateral
of the reference well, and to pressurematch the model-generated surface treating
pressure with the reference well's meas-

ured surface treating pressure.
Once the stress profile was validated
by pressure matching, the lateral of the
subject well (which did not have a vertical
pilot hole) was located within the stress
profile. The 14 frac stages of the subject
well were run in the model, and the model-predicted surface treating pressures
were matched to actual measured surface
treating pressure.
At the end of each stage, fall-off time

(equal to the time before the start of the
subsequent stage) was included to simulate
the dissipation of the accumulated stress
shadow from the stage. Figure 5 shows a
3-D depiction of the first four frac stages
as modeled (heel to the left and toe to the
right). Note that stages 1 and 2 tended to
develop fractures in all five perf clusters,
while stages 3 and 4 developed dominant
fractures.
The fracture model was run initially
with no effort to redistribute DAS-observed
distribution allocations. The fracture geometries generated by the model generally reflected DAS observations to the extent
that dominant and nominal fracture geometries were reflected. However, the particular
perforation clusters that developed dominant
fractures in the model were not always at
the same location as observed by DAS.
The simulator was modified to match the
location of the dominant clusters to the
locations observed by DAS.
Figure 6A shows the modeled proppant
concentration distribution for all four
clusters in stage 4. The proppant concentration is scaled from 0 (green) to 4
(purple) in pounds per square foot, and
the wellbore location is indicated by
black "Xs."
Cluster 3 was the dominant fracture

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of American Oil and Gas Reporter - November 2016

Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - November 2016 - 1
American Oil and Gas Reporter - November 2016 - 2
American Oil and Gas Reporter - November 2016 - Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - November 2016 - 4
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