American Oil and Gas Reporter - May 2017 - 71

Pressure-Dependent Permeability
Pressure-dependent permeability modulus (╬│) is an important parameter that de-

ere
Wh

In

tio
va
o
n

s
low
F
n

FIGURE 2A
Gas Production Rate versus Calculated Sand-Face Pressure
35

30
Well B
Gas Production Rate (MMcf/d)

ence of natural fractures. This implies a
heterogeneous and anisotropic matrix and
SRV that should result in different production behaviors if the rate reduction
was related to SRV and formation matrix
permeability.
It is worth mentioning that wells G
and H produced from tubing while the
others were initially produced through
casing, and then through tubing when
the critical rate was reached. The desired
production rate was achieved as long as
tubing pressure was above line pressure.
In this case, no critical pressure was seen
and managed pressure drawdown eliminated the risk of reduced hydraulic fracture
conductivity.
Figures 2A and 2B show the gas production rate versus the calculated sandface pressure for the eight Utica wells.
The gradient of gas production rate versus
calculated sand-face pressure shows the
production rates of managed drawdown
wells G and H (Figure 2B) decaying
much less than the gradient of unmanaged
drawdown wells A and B (Figure 2A)
with respect to pressure.

Well A

25

Well C
Well E

20

Well D
Well F

15

10

5

0
0

2,000

4,000
6,000
8,000
Calculated Sand-Face Pressure (psi)

scribes the dynamics of change in permeability as a function of pressure. A singlephase gas model was generated to understand the impact of ╬│ on a 50-year EUR.
The assumptions used for the base model
are consistent with the results observed
from field data. This model assumes a

10,000

12,000

lateral length of 7,000 feet with 105 clusters
(60 percent cluster efficiency based on
200-foot stage spacing), 8 percent porosity,
15 percent water saturation, 117 feet of
height and a drainage area of 161 acres.
Because pressure-dependent modulus
is unknown at this stage in the Utica's

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MAY 2017 71


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of American Oil and Gas Reporter - May 2017

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