American Oil and Gas Reporter - August 2017 - 57

SpecialReport: Hydraulic Fracturing Technology
FIGURE 4
Treatment Chart for Delaware Basin Wolfcamp Well using VFR Fluid
12,000

Surface Treating Pressure
Slurry Rate
Proppant Concentration
FR Concentration

10,000

Pressure "rollover"

Pressure (psi)

5

80

4

60
Increasing FR
Concentration

4,000

2,000

0

100

0

10

20

30

40

50
60
Elapsed Time (minutes)

concentrations yield viscosities that enable
the placement of higher fracture conductivities and provide larger fracture heights.
The ability to reduce cross-well interference is a targeted objective for the operator. In one area, well spacing varied
from 400 feet in one portion of the reservoir to 600-800 feet in adjacent areas.
Potential well interference issues are believed to have been reduced by using
VFR fluid to adjust the total fluid volume
pumped while maintaining the placement
of similar proppant volumes in each well.
Figure 4 shows a job plot from a
Wolfcamp well. Lower friction reducer
loadings were used to place the earlytime 100-mesh stages and lower concentrations of 20/40-mesh sand, followed
by progressively increasing friction reducer
loading from 0.75 to 2.5 gpt to place the
20/40-mesh stages. During this treatment,
two notable pressure increases occurred.
First, pressure began to rise only after 60
minutes, which resulted in a decision to

70

80

90

100

Rate (bpm)

6,000

6

40

2

20

1

0

0

increase friction reducer loading. Shortly
after loading was increased, pressure
rolled over and began to drop.
Similarly, pressure began rising rapidly
(perhaps from a fracture width restriction)
between 70-80 minutes, again prompting
an on-the-fly viscosity adjustment by increasing friction reducer concentration.
At 80 minutes, another pressure rollover
occurred, perhaps facilitated by the higher
fluid viscosity. The remainder of the
treatment was placed without issues.
As these case histories illustrate, VFR
fluids enable operators to reduce water
and chemical requirements, improve fracture conductivities, optimize treatments
with on-the-fly viscosity changes, and
ultimately lower completion costs in horizontal resource plays. With the new
forms of polyacrylamides and fit-for-purpose chemical structures, significant opportunities exist for continued expansion
of VFR systems in future well stimulation
applications.
r

Petro River Sees Success With Kern County Well
NEW YORK-Petro River Oil Corp.
says its Carrani-Rennie 47C-15 exploration
well in its Sunset Boulevard prospect in
Kern County, Ca., is a success.
The well, drilled to 8,500 feet, confirms
at least two commercially successful pay
zones, Petro River says, adding initial results
indicate significant reserve potential.
"This is our third discovery in the past
60 days confirming our application of 3-D
seismic technology to find overlooked pools
of oil in historically prolific fields," says
Stephen Brunner, Petro River president.
Since its 1933 discovery, the Kern

3

Proppant Concentration (gpa)/FR Concentration (gpt)

Losing perfs?

8,000

120

County field has produced more than
100 million barrels of oil and equivalents
from six distinct reservoirs. Petro River
says its 3-D survey constitutes the first
modern seismic data, including 2-D and
3-D surveys, acquired over this geologically complex field.
Petro River says it owns a 19.25
percent interest in the Kern County field
based on a 13.75 percent direct working
interest and 5.5 percent indirect working
interest through its 20 percent equity investment in Horizon Energy Partners
LLC.
r

STEVE COLLINS is executive vice
president, completions and operations,
at Houston-based Earthstone Energy
Inc. He had served in a similar capacity
with Oak Valley Resources LLC from
its formation in 2012 until the closing
of its strategic combination with Earthstone in 2014. With 28 years of industry
experience, Collins previously served
in completion, operations and production engineering roles at GeoResources, Southern Bay Operating,
AROC, Texoil, Hunt Oil Company and
Pacific Enterprises Oil Company. He
holds a B.S. in petroleum engineering
from the University of Texas.

MARK VAN DOMELEN is vice president of technology for Downhole
Chemical Solutions LLC. Before joining
the company, he served for 31 years
at Halliburton in technology and operations management, field engineering, supply chain, and training positions. Van Domelen's primary areas
of expertise are hydraulic fracturing
and well completion. He holds a B.S.
in mining engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

WAYNE CUTRER is chief executive
officer of Downhole Chemical Solutions
LLC. With 16 years of experience in
the oil and gas chemical segment, he
previously served as co-founder and
senior vice president of Chem Rock
Technologies and as vice president of
engineering and operations at Mud
Master Drilling Fluid Services and
Optifrac Chemical Services. Cutrer
holds a degree in mechanical engineering from the University of
Louisiana at Lafayette.

MICHAEL RUEGAMER is a consulting petroleum engineer at Kingsfield
Consulting LLC in Humble, Tx. With
16 years of experience, he previously
served as a consulting petroleum engineer at Ely & Associates, managing
partner and chief trader at Titus Trading Group, regional engineer at BJ
Services Company, a stimulation and
coiled tubing technical professional
at Halliburton, and a field engineer
at Praxair Oilfield Services. Ruegamer
holds a B.S. in petroleum engineering
from Montana Tech of the University
of Montana.
AUGUST 2017 57



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