American Oil and Gas Reporter - September 2020 - 40

pages 40-47_Layout 1 9/18/2020 3:30 PM Page 40

WellFracturing: Diagnostics

Pressure Data Tracks Fracture Growth
By Larrez Green,
Laine Valle,
Qin Ji,
Allie Garcia
and Erica Coenen
HOUSTON-Real-time pressure monitoring during hydraulic fracturing provides
critical insights to allow operators to optimize frac designs, modify pump schedules on the fly, prevent fracture communication and maximize the performance
of each stage pumped in every well on a
pad.
High-resolution pressure data is recorded by surface or downhole gauges at both
parent and child well locations while
completing the child wells. The pressure
signals can provide operators the information needed to understand the characteristics and behaviors of created fractures,
increase cluster efficiency, and control
parent-child well interactions to protect
parent wells from frac hits while improving
child well productivity.
Pressure-based fracture mapping was
used in a nine-well project in the Delaware
Basin to anticipate and mitigate damage
to two parent (BP1H and BP2H) and
seven child (BC1H-BC7H) wells while

completing a new pad. All wells are
landed in the Wolfcamp A, except for the
BP2H, which is in the Wolfcamp B and
is drilled in a 22 degree counterclockwise
rotation with respect to the other wells.
Wells BC3H, BC4H and BC5H are toe
up. The others are all toe down. Horizontal
well spacing is 500 feet between all child
wells.
BP1H had been on production for
three months before child well completion
operations began. The well had cumulatively produced 58,000 barrels of oil,
274 million cubic feet of natural gas, and
259,000 barrels of water from 65 stages
completed with 120-foot spacing and 10
clusters per stage. BP2H had been on
production for four years. It was not shut
in during child well fracturing. Its cumulative oil, gas and water production was
399,000 barrels, 1.78 billion cubic feet,
and 2.15 million barrels, respectively,
from 38 stages completed at 170-foot
spacing with three clusters per stage.
The child wells were stimulated in
two phases, with wells BC4H, BC5H,
BC6H and BC7H in the first phase and
wells BC1H, BC2H and BC3H completed
one month later during the second phase.
For all seven child wells, stage spacing

was 150 feet with 10 clusters per stage.
The stage numbers varied according to
well length.
Surface pressure gauges were installed
on BP1H throughout all seven child completions and used intermittently during
zipper frac operations. Data was streamed
in real time so that signal magnitudes
and characteristics could be analyzed and
each stage's pressure behavior could be
monitored as fracturing operations progressed.
Surface Pressure Responses
Because of the distance between BP1H
and the stages in BC1H, BC2H and
BC3H, surface pressure signal responses
observed from BP1H were from BC1H
and BC2H only. Surface pressure at the
parent well increased approximately 500
psi while completing BC1H and BC2H,
and no response was observed during
any of BC3H's stages.
Poroelastic signal responses were classified as either compression or tensile
pressure, and the recorded data was binned
into four categories according to the
nature of the parent-child pressure communication, ranging from severe to null:
ยท Direct communication, which cre-

FIGURE 1A
Surface Pressure Signal Magnitudes and Characteristics from BP1H
1H

BP

1H

BC

Job size cut 30%
Trailing completion
Leading completion

H

BC7

H

BC6

Stress shadowing responses
H

BC4

H
BC5

3H

BC

Fluid migration responses
Direct fluid responses

40 THE AMERICAN OIL & GAS REPORTER

2H

BC

H

2
BP



American Oil and Gas Reporter - September 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of American Oil and Gas Reporter - September 2020

Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - September 2020 - Intro
American Oil and Gas Reporter - September 2020 - 1
American Oil and Gas Reporter - September 2020 - 2
American Oil and Gas Reporter - September 2020 - 3
American Oil and Gas Reporter - September 2020 - 4
American Oil and Gas Reporter - September 2020 - Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - September 2020 - 6
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