American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 48

pages 47-55_Layout 1 4/8/2021 2:39 PM Page 48

SpecialReport: Frac Tech
fracture treatment using the simulator, that would have introduced
differences between geometries in the previous and new
simulation models. Furthermore, the geometry of the H1's producing fractures is well known from MDD results.
The V1 and V2 were placed along the minimum horizontal
stress (Shmin) azimuth, away from the H1. The V2 was offset 14
feet from the V1 in the direction of Shmin so that the V2 fracture
did not directly intersect the V1 fracture.
Key Observations
Key observations to match in the simulation were:
· Production rates and bottom-hole pressures (BHPs) during
parent well production;
· Pressure response in the H1 during the V1 DFIT, MDD
injection and the V1 frac;
· Geometry of the V1 frac (from microseismic);
· H1 production uplift after the V1 frac; and
· Pressure responses during the two V1 DFITs and the V2
DFIT.
The H1 is produced at a controlled oil rate, so actual/simulated
rates match perfectly during the 12-year production period. The
gas rate is a very close match. Simulated water production is
lower than actual (as noted). There were limited available BHP
measurements, but simulated BHP was in the expected range.
The distribution of pore pressure and poroelastic stress
change at the end of the H1's production period show depletion
concentrated around pre-existing fractures, with minimal depletion

ahead of the crack tip. Pressure in the fractures is drawn down
to near BHP, but significant regions exist between fractures that
are several thousand psi higher than BHP. Depletion is greatest
where fracture spacing is lowest (minimum fracture spacing is
50 feet). Poroelastic stress change correlates strongly with depletion. In the most depleted areas, poroelastic stress reduction
reaches a maximum of 1,300 psi.
Figure 1 shows the distribution of pressure and fracture conductivity just prior to the V1 DFIT. The conductivity of the
" legacy " fractures from the parent well is around 0.5 md-ft.
Figure 2 shows pressure distribution in the fractures and
formation at the end of the first V1 DFIT. Because of the lower
stress near the H1, the fracture has propagated preferentially
toward H1. Both simulated and measured H1 pressures show a
small (100-200 psi) bump caused by the V1 DFIT, which
probably indicates a minor frac hit. In the simulation, the V1
DFIT frac does, in fact, hit the pre-existing H1 fracture.
Despite this frac hit, measured V1 pressure during the DFIT
shut-in declines down to be approximately equal to the undistributed formation fluid pressure. This occurs for two reasons.
First, the unpropped fracture conductivity rapidly drops off to a
low value after closure, so fluid leak off from the V1 to the H1
is minimal after closure. Second, V1 is outside the region of
pressure depletion around the H1.
Matching the loss of hydraulic connection between V1 and
H1 after shut-in (despite the frac hit during injection) required
selecting fracture properties that would cause unpropped con-

FIGURE 2
Fluid Pressure Distribution at End of First V1 DFIT

Pressure (psi)
1040

2701

11 y, 52 d, 10 h, 50 m, 35 s

48 THE AMERICAN OIL & GAS REPORTER

4363

6024

Stretch: Horiz = 5, Direction = 90 deg, Vert = 1

7686



American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021

Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Intro
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Cover1
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Cover2
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 4
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 5
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 6
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 7
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 8
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 9
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 10
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 11
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 12
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 13
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 14
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 15
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 16
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 17
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 18
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 19
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 20
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 21
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 22
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 23
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 24
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 25
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 26
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 27
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 28
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 29
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 30
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 31
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 32
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 33
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 34
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 35
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 36
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 37
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 38
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 39
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 40
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 41
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 42
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 43
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 44
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 45
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 46
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 47
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 48
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 49
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 50
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 51
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 52
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 53
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 54
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 55
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 56
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 57
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 58
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 59
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 60
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 61
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 62
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 63
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 64
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 65
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 66
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 67
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 68
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 69
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 70
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 71
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 72
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 73
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 74
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 75
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 76
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 77
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 78
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 79
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 80
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 81
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 82
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Cover3
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202103
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202008
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202006
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202005
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202003
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202002
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201908
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201906
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201905
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201903
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201902
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/pbios_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201808
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201807
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201806
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201805
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201803
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201802
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201712
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201711
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201710
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201709
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201707
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201706
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201705
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201704
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201703
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201702
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201701
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201612
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201611
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201610
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/pbios2016_programguide
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201609
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201608
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201606
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201605
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201604
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201603
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201602
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201601
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201512
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201511
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201510
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201509
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201508
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201507
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201505
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201504
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201503
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201502
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201501
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201412
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201411
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201410
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201409
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/pbios2014_programguide
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201408
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201407
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201406
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201404
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201403
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201402
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201401
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201312
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201311
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201310
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201309
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201308
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201307
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201306
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201305
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201303
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201302
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201301
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/2012_pbios
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201208
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201207
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201206
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201205
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201204
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201202
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/demo/aogr_clone
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201112
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com